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The mechanisms underlying CD4(+) T cell depletion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are not well understood. Comparative studies of lymphoid tissues, where the vast majority of T cells reside, and peripheral blood can potentially illuminate the pathogenesis of HIV-associated disease. Here, we studied the effect of HIV infection on the(More)
Ovarian carcinoma multicellular spheroids are an in vitro model of micrometastasis whose adhesive abilities have not been elucidated. In this study, we identified adhesion molecules that mediate the formation of ovarian carcinoma spheroids and their subsequent adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. The NIH:OVCAR5, but not the SKOV3, ovarian carcinoma(More)
The forces that govern clonal selection during the genesis and maintenance of specific T cell responses are complex, but amenable to decryption by interrogation of constituent clonotypes within the antigen-experienced T cell pools. Here, we used point-mutated peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I (pMHCI) antigens, unbiased TCRB gene usage(More)
The role of CD4+ T cells in the control of persistent viral infections beyond the provision of cognate help remains unclear. We used polychromatic flow cytometry to evaluate the production of the cytokines interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-2, the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1beta, and surface(More)
Although graft-versus-host (GVH) disease (GVHD) is usually associated with graft versus leukemia (GVL), GVL can occur in the absence of clinical GVHD. There is evidence to suggest that GVL and GVH are mediated by different clones of T cells. The objective of this study was to identify the two types of T cells based on their receptor sequences. To this end(More)
Escape from adaptive T cell immunity through transmutation of viral antigenic structure is a cardinal feature in the pathogenesis of SIV/HIV infection and a major obstacle to antiretroviral vaccine development. However, the molecular determinants of this phenomenon at the T cell receptor (TCR)-antigen interface are unknown. Here, we show that mutational(More)
Virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) with high levels of functional avidity have been associated with viral clearance in hepatitis C virus infection and with enhanced antiviral protective immunity in animal models. However, the role of functional avidity as a determinant of HIV-specific CTL efficacy remains to be assessed. Here we measured the(More)
CD4(+) T-cell help is essential for effective immune responses to viruses. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, CD4(+) T cells specific for HIV are infected by the virus at higher frequencies than other memory CD4(+) T cells. Here, we demonstrate that HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells are barely detectable in most infected individuals and that the(More)
Vol. 203, No. 13, December 25, 2006 2865–2877 www.jem.org/cgi/doi/10.1084/jem.20052246 2865 Human CMV is a β herpes virus that establishes lifelong infection. Endothelial, renal epithelial, and pulmonary tissue as well as myeloid cells all contain latent CMV. Seroprevalence increases with age and reaches 30–70% in developed countries (1). Although serious(More)
Particle-based delivery of encapsulated antigens has great potential for improving vaccine constructs. In this study, we show that antigen-loaded, pH-sensitive hydrogel microparticles are taken up and presented by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in vitro and are taken up by dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes in vivo. This uptake is irrespective(More)