Learn More
Hypofunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. NMDAR antagonists like ketamine induce schizophrenia-like features in humans. In rodent studies, NMDAR antagonism impairs learning by disrupting long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. This study investigated the effects of ketamine on(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors' goal was to test in humans the hypothesis that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism results in increased cortical glutamate activity, as proposed by the NMDAR hypofunction model of schizophrenia. METHOD 4-T 1H proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to acquire in vivo spectra from the bilateral anterior(More)
Researchers have long attempted to determine brain correlates of intelligence using available neuroimaging technology including CT, MRI, PET, and fMRI. Although structural and functional imaging techniques are well suited to assess gross cortical regions associated with intelligence, the integrity and functioning of underlying white matter networks critical(More)
Glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter, has been implicated as an important mediator in the neurotransmission, potentiation, and negative affect associated with pain. We present results showing that a painful stimulus elicits a dynamic increase in glutamate (9.3% from baseline) concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex, detectable using proton(More)
BACKGROUND Reduced hippocampal volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients are thought to reflect specific changes of this structure. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have not consistently examined indices of overall brain atrophy, therefore it cannot be completely ruled out that hippocampal changes are explained by whole-brain(More)
Schizophrenia can be classified into two separate syndromes: deficit and nondeficit. Primary, enduring negative symptoms are used to define the deficit form of the illness, which is believed to have a unique neurobiological substrate. Previous research suggests that an aberrant prefrontal-thalamic-parietal network underlies deficit schizophrenia. In this(More)
We investigated glutamate-related neuronal dysfunction in the anterior cingulate (AC) early in schizophrenia before and after antipsychotic treatment. A total of 14 minimally treated schizophrenia patients and 10 healthy subjects were studied with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the AC, frontal white matter and thalamus at(More)
Significant weight gain is a side effect associated with olanzapine treatment in some patients. We investigated the efficacy of high-dose fluoxetine as a weight-reducing agent for patients who develop early weight gain with olanzapine treatment. Patients that gained >/=3% of their baseline weight in the initial 8 weeks of olanzapine treatment (n=31) were(More)
In vivo measurement of neurotransmitters and modulators is now feasible with advanced proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) techniques. This review provides a basic tutorial of MRS, describes the methods available to measure brain glutamate, glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutathione, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, glycine, and serine at magnetic(More)
Reduced frontal N-acetylaspartate (NAA) has been repeatedly found in chronic schizophrenia and suggests neuronal loss or dysfunction. However, the potential confounding effect of antipsychotic drugs on NAA has not been resolved. The few studies of antipsychotic-nai;ve patients are inconclusive. A recent report suggests that antipsychotic drugs may increase(More)