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The smallest reported bacterial genome belongs to Tremblaya princeps, a symbiont of Planococcus citri mealybugs (PCIT). Tremblaya PCIT not only has a 139 kb genome, but possesses its own bacterial endosymbiont, Moranella endobia. Genome and transcriptome sequencing, including genome sequencing from a Tremblaya lineage lacking intracellular bacteria, reveals(More)
Abstract Background. We recently reported that prepulse inhibition (PPI) in humans was increased by the dopamine (DA) agonist/N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist amantadine (200 mg), but was not significantly altered by the DA agonist bromocriptine (1.25–2.5 mg). PPI-enhancing effects of DA agonists occur in rats under specific stimulus conditions,(More)
Sexual reproduction is an ancient feature of life on earth, and the familiar X and Y chromosomes in humans and other model species have led to the impression that sex determination mechanisms are old and conserved. In fact, males and females are determined by diverse mechanisms that evolve rapidly in many taxa. Yet this diversity in primary sex-determining(More)
Decisions over what sex ratio to produce can have far-reaching evolutionary consequences, for both offspring and parents. However, the extent to which males and females come into evolutionary conflict over aspects of sex allocation depends on the genetic system: when genes are passed to the next generation unequally by the two sexes (as in haplodiploidy,(More)
Australian species make up seventeen of the world’s twenty-five recognised species of Sorghum, with the genus separated into five sections: Eu-sorghum, Chaetosorghum, Heterosorghum, Para-sorghum and Stiposorghum. Whereas the genetic relationships within section Eu-sorghum are well known, little is known about the genetic relationships and crossabilities(More)
It is now clear that mechanisms of sex determination are extraordinarily labile, with considerable variation across all taxonomic levels. This variation is often expressed through differences in the genetic system (XX-XY, XX-XO, haplodiploidy, and so on). Why there is so much variation in such a seemingly fundamental process has attracted much attention,(More)
In eusocial species, the sex ratio of helpers varies from female only, in taxa such as the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps) [1], to an unbiased mixture of males and females, as in most termites [2]. Hamilton suggested that this difference owes to the haplodiploid genetics of the Hymenoptera leading to females being relatively more related to their(More)
Understanding why some organisms reproduce by sexual reproduction while others can reproduce asexually remains an important unsolved problem in evolutionary biology. Simple demography suggests that asexuals should outcompete sexually reproducing organisms, because of their higher intrinsic rate of increase. However, the majority of multicellular organisms(More)
Environmental effects on sex allocation are common, yet the evolutionary significance of these effects remains poorly understood. Environmental effects might influence parents, such that their condition directly influences sex allocation by altering the relative benefits of producing sons versus daughters. Alternatively, the environment might influence the(More)
Across arthropod societies, sib-rearing (e.g. nursing or nest defence) may be provided by females, by males or by both sexes. According to Hamilton's 'haplodiploidy hypothesis', this diversity reflects the relatedness consequences of diploid vs. haplodiploid inheritance. However, an alternative 'preadaptation hypothesis' instead emphasises an interplay of(More)