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CONTEXT Preterm infants have a high prevalence of long-term cognitive and behavioral disturbances. However, it is not known whether the stresses associated with premature birth disrupt regionally specific brain maturation or whether abnormalities in brain structure contribute to cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVE To determine whether regional brain volumes(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare regional brain volumes measured in term and preterm infants, and to correlate regional volumes with measures of neurodevelopmental outcome. METHODS High-contrast, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 10 preterm and 14 term infants who were scanned near term. The cerebrum was segmented into cortical gray(More)
To identify the fates that astroglial cells can attain in the postnatal brain, we generated mice carrying an inducible Cre recombinase (Cre-ER(T2)) controlled by the human GFAP promoter (hGFAP). In mice carrying the GCE (hGFAP-Cre-ER(T2)) transgene, OHT (4-hydroxy-tamoxifen) injections induced Cre recombination in astroglial cells at postnatal day 5 and(More)
Preterm birth is frequently associated with both neuropathologic and cognitive sequelae. This study examined cortical lobe, subcortical, and lateral ventricle development in association with perinatal variables and cognitive outcome. High-resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired and quantified using advanced image processing(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal was to use diffusion tensor imaging to test the hypothesis that prematurely born children demonstrate long-term, white matter, microstructural differences, relative to term control subjects. METHODS Twenty-nine preterm subjects (birth weight: 600-1250 g) without neonatal brain injury and 22 matched, term, control subjects were evaluated(More)
Very low birth weight preterm (PT) children are at high risk for brain injury. Employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we tested the hypothesis that PT adolescents would demonstrate microstructural white matter disorganization relative to term controls at 16 years of age. Forty-four PT subjects (600-1250 g birth weight) without neonatal brain injury and(More)
The neurodevelopmental disabilities of those who were born prematurely have been well described, yet the underlying alterations in brain development that lead to these changes remain poorly understood. Processes that are vulnerable to injury in the developing brain include maturation of oligodendrocyte precursors and genetically programmed changes in(More)
Most regions of the mature mammalian brain, including the cerebral cortex, appear to be unable to support the genesis of new neurons. Here, we report that a low level of neurogenesis occurs in the cerebral cortex of the infant mouse brain and is enhanced by chronic perinatal hypoxia. When mice were reared in a low-oxygen environment from postnatal days 3 to(More)
Recent data have demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is expressed by subsets of neurons, coincident with angiogenesis within the developing cerebral cortex. Here we investigate the characteristics of VEGF expression by neurons and test the hypothesis that VEGF may serve both paracrine and autocrine functions in the developing central(More)
CONTEXT Preterm very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants have a high prevalence of neurodevelopmental disability when evaluated during the first several years of life. However, recent experimental data suggest that the developing brain may recover from or compensate for injury. OBJECTIVE To determine if there is cognitive improvement throughout early and(More)