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CONTEXT Preterm infants have a high prevalence of long-term cognitive and behavioral disturbances. However, it is not known whether the stresses associated with premature birth disrupt regionally specific brain maturation or whether abnormalities in brain structure contribute to cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVE To determine whether regional brain volumes(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare regional brain volumes measured in term and preterm infants, and to correlate regional volumes with measures of neurodevelopmental outcome. METHODS High-contrast, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 10 preterm and 14 term infants who were scanned near term. The cerebrum was segmented into cortical gray(More)
To identify the fates that astroglial cells can attain in the postnatal brain, we generated mice carrying an inducible Cre recombinase (Cre-ER(T2)) controlled by the human GFAP promoter (hGFAP). In mice carrying the GCE (hGFAP-Cre-ER(T2)) transgene, OHT (4-hydroxy-tamoxifen) injections induced Cre recombination in astroglial cells at postnatal day 5 and(More)
CONTEXT Preterm very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants have a high prevalence of neurodevelopmental disability when evaluated during the first several years of life. However, recent experimental data suggest that the developing brain may recover from or compensate for injury. OBJECTIVE To determine if there is cognitive improvement throughout early and(More)
Most regions of the mature mammalian brain, including the cerebral cortex, appear to be unable to support the genesis of new neurons. Here, we report that a low level of neurogenesis occurs in the cerebral cortex of the infant mouse brain and is enhanced by chronic perinatal hypoxia. When mice were reared in a low-oxygen environment from postnatal days 3 to(More)
Preterm birth is frequently associated with both neuropathologic and cognitive sequelae. This study examined cortical lobe, subcortical, and lateral ventricle development in association with perinatal variables and cognitive outcome. High-resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired and quantified using advanced image processing(More)
Periventricular leukomalacia is characterized by a reduction in brain matter and secondary ventriculomegaly and is a major cause of developmental delay and cerebral palsy in prematurely born infants. Currently, our understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition is limited. In animal models, features of periventricular leukomalacia can be induced by(More)
Premature human infants frequently suffer from periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) characterized by the loss of central myelinated tracts in the brain [Neuropathology, 22 (2002) 193]. Rodent chronic sublethal hypoxia (CSH) from P3 to 33 (postnatal day 3-33) provides a model for PVL characterized by cerebral ventriculomegaly and reductions in cerebral white(More)
Very low birth weight preterm (PT) children are at high risk for brain injury. Employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we tested the hypothesis that PT adolescents would demonstrate microstructural white matter disorganization relative to term controls at 16 years of age. Forty-four PT subjects (600-1250 g birth weight) without neonatal brain injury and(More)
The neurodevelopmental disabilities of those who were born prematurely have been well described, yet the underlying alterations in brain development that lead to these changes remain poorly understood. Processes that are vulnerable to injury in the developing brain include maturation of oligodendrocyte precursors and genetically programmed changes in(More)