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Many commercial processors now offer the possibility of extending their instruction set for a specific application---that is, to introduce customised functional units. There is a need to develop algorithms that decide automatically, from high-level application code, which operations are to be carried out in the customised extensions. A few algorithms exist(More)
In embedded computing, cost, power, and performance constraints call for the design of specialized processors, rather than for the use of the existing off-the-shelf solutions. While the design of these application-specific CPUs could be tackled from scratch, a cheaper and more effective option is that of extending the existing processors and toolchains.(More)
This paper explores the possibility of enabling a partial customisability of the Instruction Set of Very Long Instruction Wold processors for embedded applications, by exploiting Field Programmable Gate Arrays technology. A formal methodology is presented leading to selection of the application critical parts, whose RFUs (Recongurable Functional Units)(More)
Customisable embedded processors are becoming available on the market, thus making it possible for designers to speed up execution of applications by using <i>Application-specific Functional Units</i> (AFUs), implementing <i>Instruction-Set Extensions</i> (ISEs). While these processors have become available, the state of the art on automatic ISE(More)
Caffeine has been imbibed since ancient times in tea and coffee, and more recently in colas. Caffeine owes its psychostimulant action to a blockade of adenosine A(2A) receptors, but little is known about its intracellular mechanism of action. Here we show that the stimulatory effect of caffeine on motor activity in mice was greatly reduced following genetic(More)
Automatic generation of a customized instruction set, starting from an input application code, is a complex problem that has received considerable attention in the past few years. Because of its complexity, only simplified versions of the problem have been solved exactly so far. For example, exact algorithms have been proposed for custom instruction(More)
Three 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, MDL 72222, tropisetron, and ondansetron were studied for their ability to modify the conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by 10 mg/kg IP cocaine in rats. MDL 72222 (0.03-3 mg/kg SC) and tropisetron (0.01-0.1 mg/kg SC) administered, respectively, 30 min and 1 h before each conditioning session, did not affect the(More)
The two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), are involved in the control of gene expression via phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factors cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and Elk-1. Here, we have examined the effect of haloperidol and clozapine, two(More)
Herbal cannabis, smoked in the form of marihuana or hashish, is the most common illicit drug consumed in the Western world. In the brain, cannabinoids interact with neuronal CB1 receptors, thereby producing a marked reduction of motor activity. Here, we report that the motor depressant effect produced by the cannabinoid receptor agonist(More)
There is a growing demand for application-specific embedded processors in system-on-a-chip designs. Current tools and design methodologies often require designers to manually specialize the processor based on an application. Moreover, the use of the new complex instructions added to the processor is often left to designers’ ingenuity. In this paper, we(More)