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The canonical role of messenger RNA (mRNA) is to deliver protein-coding information to sites of protein synthesis. However, given that microRNAs bind to RNAs, we hypothesized that RNAs could possess a regulatory role that relies on their ability to compete for microRNA binding, independently of their protein-coding function. As a model for the(More)
Here, we present a unifying hypothesis about how messenger RNAs, transcribed pseudogenes, and long noncoding RNAs "talk" to each other using microRNA response elements (MREs) as letters of a new language. We propose that this "competing endogenous RNA" (ceRNA) activity forms a large-scale regulatory network across the transcriptome, greatly expanding the(More)
Tumor cells metastasize to distant organs through genetic and epigenetic alterations, including changes in microRNA (miR) expression. Here we find miR-22 triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), enhances invasiveness and promotes metastasis in mouse xenografts. In a conditional mammary gland-specific transgenic (TG) mouse model, we show that miR-22(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short 20-22 nucleotide RNA molecules that act as negative regulators of gene expression via translational repression: they have been shown to play a role in development, proliferation, stress response, and apoptosis. The transcriptional regulator LRF (Leukemia/lymphoma Related Factor) has been shown to prevent p19ARF transcription and(More)
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, pseudogenes and circRNAs) have recently come into light as powerful players in cancer pathogenesis and it is becoming increasingly clear that they have the potential of greatly contributing to the spread and success of personalized cancer medicine. In this concise review, we briefly introduce these three classes of long(More)
1. Poliseno, L., et al., Identification of the miR-106b~25 microRNA cluster as a proto-oncogenic PTEN-targeting intron that cooperates with its host gene MCM7 in transformation. Ernst, A., et al., De-repression of CTGF via the miR-17-92 cluster upon differentiation of human glioblastoma spheroid cultures. A coding-independent function of gene and pseudogene(More)
Several reports have demonstrated a role for aberrant NOTCH signaling in melanoma genesis and progression, prompting us to explore if targeting this pathway is a valid therapeutic approach against melanoma. We targeted NOTCH signaling using RO4929097, a novel inhibitor of gamma secretase, which is a key component of the enzymatic complex that cleaves and(More)
Previous reports have demonstrated a role for hedgehog signaling in melanoma progression, prompting us to explore the therapeutic benefit of targeting this pathway in melanoma. We profiled a panel of human melanoma cell lines and control melanocytes for altered expression of hedgehog pathway members and determined the consequences of both genetic and(More)
In this study, we report that immortal mouse embryonic fibroblasts (I-MEFs) have a baseline level of cells positive for alkaline phosphatase (AP(+)) staining. Environmental stresses, including long-lasting growth in the absence of expansion and treatment with drugs, enhance the frequency of AP(+) I-MEFs. By adapting fast red AP staining to the sorting(More)