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The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) delivers intracellular signals through the adaptor DAP12 to regulate myeloid cell function both within and outside the immune system. The role of TREM-2 in immunity has been obscured by the failure to detect expression of the TREM-2 protein in vivo. In this study, we show that TREM-2 is expressed(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
Lymphocyte recruitment into the brain is a critical event in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We developed a novel intravital microscopy model to directly analyze through the skull the interactions between lymphocytes and the endothelium in cerebral venules of mice. No adhesive interactions were observed(More)
Chemokines trigger rapid integrin-dependent lymphocyte arrest to vascular endothelium. We show that the chemokines SLC, ELC, and SDF-1alpha rapidly induce lateral mobility and transient increase of affinity of the beta2 integrin LFA-1. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) activity blocks mobility but not affinity changes and prevents(More)
Dysregulation of blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and transendothelial migration of leukocytes are essential components of the development and propagation of active lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Animal studies indicate that polarized expression of the chemokine CXCL12 at the BBB prevents leukocyte extravasation into the central nervous system (CNS)(More)
Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells (TREM)2 deficiency originates a genetic syndrome characterized by bone cysts and presenile dementia, named Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD). Early onset dementia and marked involvement of frontal regions are features characterizing both NHD and other kinds of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Frontotemporal Lobar(More)
Low frequency coding variants in TREM2 are associated with increased Alzheimer disease (AD) risk, while loss of functions mutations in the gene lead to an autosomal recessive early-onset dementia, named Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD). TREM2 can be detected as a soluble protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma, and its CSF levels are elevated in(More)
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-2) is a membrane receptor associated with DAP12 that is expressed primarily in myeloid cells, including dendritic cells and microglia, and promotes fusion of osteoclast precursors into multinucleated cells. A rare autosomal recessive condition, Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is associated with loss-of-function(More)
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) is a membrane-bound receptor expressed by microglia and macrophages. Engagement of TREM-2 on these cells has been reported to reduce inflammatory responses and, in microglial cells, to promote phagocytosis. TREM-2 function is critical within the CNS, as its genetic deficiency in humans causes(More)
Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN), causative for Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration with ubiquitin-immunoreactive neuronal inclusions (FTLD-U), could also be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The influence of GRN genetic variability on susceptibility to AD and on expression levels in a series of neuropathologically-confirmed AD patients as well(More)