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Human immunodeficiency virus infection is characterized by dysregulation of antigen-presenting cell function and defects in cell-mediated immunity. Recent evidence suggests that impaired ability of CD4+ T cells to upregulate the costimulatory molecule CD154 is at the core of this dysregulation. To test the hypothesis that increased expression of CD154 on(More)
We studied the innate and adaptive immune system of rhesus macaques infected with the virulent simian immunodeficiency virus isolate SIVmac251 by evaluating natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytokine levels in plasma, humoral and virological parameters, and changes in the activation markers CD25 (interleukin 2R ¿IL-2R alpha chain), CD69 (early activation(More)
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) stocks for in vivo nonhuman primate models of AIDS are typically generated by transfection of 293T cells with molecularly cloned viral genomes or by expansion in productively infected T cells. Although titers of stocks are determined for infectivity in vitro prior to in vivo inoculation, virus production methods may(More)
Mucosal tissues are the primary route of transmission for most respiratory and sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There is epidemiological evidence that genital mucosal inflammation leads to enhanced HIV type 1 (HIV-1) transmission. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of periodontal inflammation(More)
BACKGROUND γδT cells are effector cells that eliminate cancer and virus-infected cells. Chimpanzees are an endangered species that can naturally and experimentally be infected with SIV and HIV, respectively, but no information about the functionality of γδT cells during chronic lentiviral infection is currently available. METHODS Healthy and HIV-infected(More)
BACKGROUND Several factors determine the risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), such as coinfections in placentas from HIV-1 positive mothers with other pathogens. Chagas' disease is one of the most endemic zoonoses in Latin America, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The purpose of the study was to determine whether T. cruzi modifies HIV(More)
Baboons are very similar to humans in ontogeny, reproductive physiology, and placentation, and thus serve as an excellent nonhuman primate model for use in both normative and perturbation studies of pregnancy that cannot be performed on pregnant women. However, little is known about the changes induced by normal pregnancy in the maternal and fetal baboon in(More)
Infection of rhesus macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is the preferred animal model for the development and testing of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines, and animals protected from SIV challenge by live attenuated vaccines are an invaluable tool for determining immune correlates of protection. The acute phase of SIV infection, in(More)
Vaccines based on live attenuated viruses are highly effective immunogens in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/rhesus macaque animal model and offer the possibility of studying correlates of protection against infection with virulent virus. We utilized a tether system for studying, in naive macaques and animals vaccinated with a live-attenuated(More)
Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine expressed by several cell types, including activated dendritic cells and macrophages, that acts in synergy with IL-12 as an important amplifying factor for IFN-gamma production and Th1 development. To study the immunological and virological effects of IL-18 expression in the context of a lentiviral(More)