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Self-reported condom use is a commonly collected statistic, yet its use in research studies may be inaccurate. We evaluated this statistic among women in HIV-discordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial in Nairobi, Kenya. Vaginal swabs were acquired from 125 women and tested for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for semen exposure, using an(More)
We previously showed that activation of the small GTPase Cdc42 promotes breast cell migration on a collagen matrix. Here we further define the signaling pathways that drive this response and show that Cdc42-mediated migration relies on the adaptor molecule p130(Cas). Activated Cdc42 enhanced p130(Cas) phosphorylation and its binding to Crk. Cdc42-driven(More)
The kinetics of CD8(+) T cell epitope presentation contribute to the antiviral efficacy of these cells yet remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate presentation of virion-derived Vpr peptide epitopes early after viral penetration and prior to presentation of Vif-derived epitopes, which required de novo Vif synthesis. Two Rev epitopes exhibited(More)
The expression of endogenous retrotransposable elements, including long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) and human endogenous retrovirus, accompanies neoplastic transformation and infection with viruses such as HIV. The ability to engender immunity safely against such self-antigens would facilitate the development of novel vaccines and(More)
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) stocks for in vivo nonhuman primate models of AIDS are typically generated by transfection of 293T cells with molecularly cloned viral genomes or by expansion in productively infected T cells. Although titers of stocks are determined for infectivity in vitro prior to in vivo inoculation, virus production methods may(More)
CD8+ T cells play a major role in the containment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. CD8+ T cell-driven variations in conserved regions under functional constraints result in diminished viral replicative capacity. While compensatory mutations outside an epitope can restore replicative capacity, the(More)
BACKGROUND The timing of the biannual WHO influenza vaccine composition selection and production cycle has been historically directed to the influenza seasonality patterns in the temperate regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. Influenza activity, however, is poorly understood in the tropics with multiple peaks and identifiable year-round(More)
Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load may inform the origin of newly detected infections and characterize oncogenic HPV natural history in midadult women. From 2007 to 2011, we enrolled 521 25-65-year-old-female online daters and followed them triannually with mailed health and sexual behavior questionnaires and kits for self-sampling for(More)
The enormous sequence diversity of HIV remains a major roadblock to the development of a prophylactic vaccine and new approaches to induce protective immunity are needed. Endogenous retrotransposable elements (ERE) such as endogenous retrovirus K (ERV)-K and long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) are activated during HIV-1-infection and could(More)
APOBEC3 proteins mediate potent antiretroviral activity by hypermutating the retroviral genome during reverse transcription. To counteract APOBEC3 and gain a replicative advantage, lentiviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have evolved the Vif protein, which targets APOBEC3 proteins for(More)