Laura M Sawyer

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Tissue recombinants of embryonic urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM) and epithelium of the urinary bladder (urothelium, BLE) of adult rats and mice were grown for 3-30 d in male syngeneic hosts. Short-term in vivo growth indicated that prostatic morphogenesis is initiated as focal outgrowths from the basal aspect of the adult urothelium. The solid epithelial(More)
The majority of people with psoriasis have localized disease, where topical therapy forms the cornerstone of treatment. We set out to summarize evidence on the relative efficacy, safety and tolerability of different topical treatments used in plaque psoriasis. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized trial data of U.K.-licensed(More)
BACKGROUND Topical therapies are a mainstay of psoriasis treatment, but they vary substantially in terms of cost. OBJECTIVES To determine the cost-effectiveness and optimal treatment sequence for psoriasis of the trunk, limbs and scalp. METHODS Probabilities of response from a network meta-analysis were used to determine the short-term efficacy of(More)
BACKGROUND Biologic therapies have revolutionised the care of patients with psoriasis, although they come at significant extra cost. Guidance on their use in the UK National Health Service (NHS) has so far focused on patients who are "biologic naive", yet a minority of patients have poor response and require further treatment. OBJECTIVES To assess the(More)
OBJECTIVE Around one-third of patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) experience mixed episodes, characterized by both mania and depression, which tend to be more difficult and costly to treat. Atypical antipsychotics are recommended for the treatment of mixed episodes, although evidence of their efficacy, tolerability, and cost in these patients is(More)
The National Clinical Guideline Centre (NCGC) develops evidence-based clinical guidelines on behalf of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom. The U.K. Department of Health has commissioned NICE to make recommendations on the basis of both clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. This article describes(More)
BACKGROUND Since receiving a positive recommendation in England, Wales and Scotland, tocilizumab (TCZ) is one of the options available to clinicians for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in the UK. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of adding TCZ to the current treatment sequence of RA patients(More)