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Stem cell fate is influenced by specialized microenvironments that remain poorly defined in mammals. To explore the possibility that haematopoietic stem cells derive regulatory information from bone, accounting for the localization of haematopoiesis in bone marrow, we assessed mice that were genetically altered to produce osteoblast-specific, activated(More)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), an important regulator of calcium homeostasis, targets most of its complex actions in bone to cells of the osteoblast lineage. Furthermore, PTH is known to stimulate osteoclastogenesis indirectly through activation of osteoblastic cells. To assess the role of the PTH/PTH-related protein receptor (PPR) in mediating the diverse(More)
Stem cells reside in a specialized niche that regulates their abundance and fate. Components of the niche have generally been defined in terms of cells and signaling pathways. We define a role for a matrix glycoprotein, osteopontin (OPN), as a constraining factor on hematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow microenvironment. Osteoblasts that(More)
The specialized microenvironment or niche where stem cells reside provides regulatory input governing stem cell function. We tested the hypothesis that targeting the niche might improve stem cell-based therapies using three mouse models that are relevant to clinical uses of hematopoietic stem (HS) cells. We and others previously identified the osteoblast as(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW To provide an overview of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow. In addition to highlighting recent advances in the field, we will also discuss components of the niche that may contribute to the development of cancer, or cancer metastases to the bone. RECENT FINDINGS Much progress has been very recently made in the(More)
Microenvironmental signals can determine hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fate choices both directly and through stimulation of niche cells. In the bone marrow, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is known to affect both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, whereas in vitro it expands HSCs and affects differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors. We hypothesized that in vivo(More)
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) regulation is highly dependent on interactions with the marrow microenvironment. Controversy exists on N-cadherin's role in support of HSCs. Specifically, it is unknown whether microenvironmental N-cadherin is required for normal marrow microarchitecture and for hematopoiesis. To determine whether osteoblastic N-cadherin is(More)
Microenvironmental expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is induced by treatment with parathyroid hormone (PTH) or activation of the PTH receptor (PTH1R) in osteoblastic cells; however, the osteoblastic subset mediating this action of PTH is unknown. Osteocytes are terminally differentiated osteoblasts embedded in mineralized bone matrix but are(More)
Pancytopenia is a major cause of morbidity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), yet its cause is unclear. Normal osteoblastic cells have been shown to support hematopoiesis. To define the effects of leukemia on osteoblastic cells, we used an immunocompetent murine model of AML. Leukemic mice had inhibition of osteoblastic cells, with decreased serum levels of(More)
The skeleton serves as the principal site for hematopoiesis in adult terrestrial vertebrates. The function of the hematopoietic system is to maintain homeostatic levels of all circulating blood cells, including myeloid cells, lymphoid cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This action requires the daily production of more than 500 billion blood cells. The(More)