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We examine the electrochemical gradients that form across chemical garden membranes and investigate how self-assembling, out-of-equilibrium inorganic precipitates-mimicking in some ways those generated in far-from-equilibrium natural systems-can generate electrochemical energy. Measurements of electrical potential and current were made across membranes(More)
Introduction: The 2007 Phoenix Lander is designed to touch down on the high northern latitudes of Mars to characterize the surface, acquire and analyze samples of soil and ice, and monitor atmospheric conditions. Entry, descent, and landing (EDL) are critical phases of the mission and require knowledge of specific atmospheric and surface characteristics for(More)
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