Laura K. Mäkinen

Learn More
BACKGROUND The prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue is poor and it would be beneficial to find prognostic markers to better adjust treatment. Bmi-1 controls cell cycle and self-renewal of tissue stem cells, transcription factor c-myc affects cell proliferation and apoptosis, and Snail regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The(More)
The prognostication of patient outcome is one of the greatest challenges in the management of early stage oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). This study introduces a simple histopathological model for the prognostication of survival in patients with early OTSCC. A total of 311 cases (from Finland and Brazil) with clinically evaluated early stage(More)
Despite early diagnosis and treatment, almost 20 % of patients with early-stage (cT1-cT2N0) oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) still die of their disease. The prognosis of OTSCC patients is influenced by several demographic, clinical, and histopathologic factors. The aim of this multicenter international study was to find which of the factors age,(More)
BACKGROUND Oral (mobile) tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is characterized by a highly variable prognosis in early-stage disease (T1/T2 N0M0). The ability to classify early oral tongue SCCs into low-risk and high-risk categories would represent a major advancement in their management. METHODS Depth of invasion, tumor budding, histologic(More)
BACKGROUND No reliable prognostic markers exist for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, and its prognosis can even in early stages be unpredictable and survival poor despite treatment. A potential marker is oncoprotein cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A), which acts as a prognostic marker in gastric and non-small cell lung cancers. METHODS We collected(More)
OBJECTIVES The clinical behavior of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) can be unpredictable, and even small tumors may behave aggressively. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition molecules involved in innate immunity, and they are also expressed in many types of cancer. TLRs play an apparently pivotal role in some cancers related to(More)
BACKGROUND Predicting the clinical course of early-stage oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is challenging. As matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes associated with invasion, metastasis, and poor survival in many cancers, we examined MMP-7 and MMP-25 in oral tongue SCC. METHODS We used tissue microarray (TMA) technique and(More)
BACKGROUND Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) often metastasizes to cervical lymph nodes. Mechanisms of this disease progression are not fully known. We aimed at finding new predictive markers for diagnosis and disease monitoring. METHODS Seventy-three consecutive T1N0M0 and T2N0M0 OTSCC patients treated at Helsinki University Central Hospital,(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognizing proteins involved in innate immunity and they seem to regulate both cancer progression and inhibition. In oral cancer, TLR activation has been linked to invasion. To define the role of TLR-2, TLR-4, and TLR-9 in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), we studied their expression in vivo in(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a cellular receptor, which recognizes bacterial and host-derived DNA. Stimulation of TLR9 induces cellular invasion via matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLR9 in invasion of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). METHODS The effects of TLR9 ligands on(More)