Laura Jane Williams

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While the pathogenesis of cervical dystonia remains unknown, recent animal and clinical experimental studies have indicated its probable mechanisms. Abnormal temporal discrimination is a mediational endophenotype of cervical dystonia and informs new concepts of disease pathogenesis. Our hypothesis is that both abnormal temporal discrimination and cervical(More)
The pathogenesis of adult-onset primary dystonia remains poorly understood. There is variable age-related and gender-related expression of the phenotype, the commonest of which is cervical dystonia. Endophenotypes may provide insight into underlying genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of dystonia. The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT)-the(More)
The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which two sensory stimuli presented sequentially are detected as asynchronous by the observer. TDTs are known to increase with age. Having previously observed shorter thresholds in young women than in men, in this work we sought to systematically examine the effect of sex and age(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent studies have proposed that the temporal discrimination threshold (TDT), the shortest detectable time period between two stimuli, is a possible endophenotype for adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia (AOIFD). Patients with AOIFD, the third most common movement disorder, and their first-degree relatives have been shown to have(More)
The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is a proposed pre-clinical biomarker (endophenotype) for adult onset isolated focal dystonia (AOIFD). Age- and sex-related effects on temporal discrimination demonstrate that women, before the age of 40 years, have faster temporal discrimination than men but their TDTs worsen with age at almost three times the(More)
Visuospatial memory describes our ability to temporarily store and manipulate visual and spatial information and is employed for a wide variety of complex cognitive tasks. Here, a visuospatial learning task requiring fine motor control is employed to investigate visuospatial learning in a group of typically developing adults. Electrophysiological and(More)
BACKGROUND Adult onset primary torsion dystonia (AOPTD) is a poorly penetrant autosomal dominant disorder; most gene carriers are non-manifesting despite having reached an adequate age for penetrance. It is hypothesised that genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors may exert protective or deleterious effects on penetrance of AOPTD. By examining(More)
BACKGROUND Adult-onset isolated focal dystonia may present with various phenotypes including blepharospasm and cervical dystonia. Although inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with a markedly reduced penetrance, environmental factors are considered important in disease penetrance and expression. We observed a marked variation by latitude in the reports(More)
BACKGROUND The visual temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which one can determine two stimuli to be asynchronous and meets criteria for a valid endophenotype in adult-onset idiopathic focal dystonia, a poorly penetrant disorder. Temporal discrimination is assessed in the hospital laboratory; in unaffected relatives of(More)