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The Ink4/Arf locus encodes two tumour-suppressor proteins, p16Ink4a and p19Arf, that govern the antiproliferative functions of the retinoblastoma and p53 proteins, respectively. Here we show that Arf binds to the product of the Mdm2 gene and sequesters it into the nucleolus, thereby preventing negative-feedback regulation of p53 by Mdm2 and leading to the(More)
Rac and Rho GTPases function as critical regulators of actin cytoskeleton remodelling during cell spreading and migration. Here we demonstrate that Rac-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production results in the downregulation of Rho activity. The redox-dependent decrease in Rho activity is required for Rac-induced formation of membrane ruffles and(More)
This study investigated whether soluble paracrine factors mediated Salmonella-induced IL-8 expression in polarized model intestinal epithelia. We found that the basolateral media of model epithelia that had been apically infected with Salmonella typhimurium for a short period (10 minutes) could activate IL-8 secretion in virgin model epithelia,(More)
7-Methylguanosine (m(7)G), also known as the mRNA "cap", is used as a molecular tag in eukaryotic cells to mark the 5' end of messenger RNAs. The mRNA cap is required for several key events in gene expression in which the m(7)G moiety is specifically recognized by cellular proteins. The configurations of the m(7)G-binding pockets of a cellular (eIF4E) and a(More)
Ras proteins play a central role in transducing signals that control cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. The location-specific signaling activity of Ras has been previously shown to be regulated by ubiquitination [1]. However, the molecular machinery that controls Ras ubiquitination has not been defined. Here we demonstrate through(More)
Although the polycomb group protein Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) is well recognized for its role as a key regulator of cell differentiation, its involvement in tissue regeneration is largely unknown. Here we show that EZH2 is up-regulated following cerulein-induced pancreatic injury and is required for tissue repair by promoting the regenerative(More)
Ligand-induced activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) initiates multiple signal-transduction pathways as well as trafficking events that relocalize the receptors from the cell surface to intracellular endocytic compartments. Although there is growing awareness that endocytic transport can play a direct role in signal specification,(More)
Mammalian cells contain three closely related ras genes, H-ras, K-ras and N-ras. Although in a given tumour type, oncogenic mutations are selectively observed in only one of the ras genes, the acquisition of the transformed phenotype has been shown to require the contribution of the normal products of the other ras genes. Here we demonstrate that oncogenic(More)
Mutations in KRAS are prevalent in human cancers and universally predictive of resistance to anticancer therapeutics. Although it is widely accepted that acquisition of an activating mutation endows RAS genes with functional autonomy, recent studies suggest that the wild-type forms of Ras may contribute to mutant Ras-driven tumorigenesis. Here, we show that(More)
Rac1, a ubiquitously expressed member of the Rho GTPase family, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple cellular processes including cytoskeleton reorganization, cell growth, differentiation and motility. Here we show that the tumor-specific splice variant of Rac1, Rac1b, negatively regulates Rac1 activity. The expression of Rac1b in HeLa cells(More)