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The alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) system is the first line of defense against viral infection and a critical link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. IFN-alpha/beta secretion is the hallmark of cellular responses to acute RNA virus infections. As part of their survival strategy, many viruses have evolved mechanisms to counteract the(More)
Phylogenetic analysis divides bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) into two different genotypes (BVDV1 and BVDV2). BVDV1 strains have been further subdivided into two to 11 subgenotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of BVDV2 isolates, however, has not been able to identify discrete subgenotypes. In this study, we identified six South American BVDV2 strains and one(More)
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates infect cultured Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells as efficiently as sheep kidney cells. In contrast, border disease virus (BDV) propagates poorly in MDBK cells but infects sheep cells very efficiently. The envelope glycoprotein E2 has been shown to be essential for virus infectivity. To explore the potential(More)
Bovine viral diarrhea virus is an important animal pathogen. The cytopathic and noncytopathic biotypes of the virus are associated with distinct pathologic entities. A striking difference between the two biotypes is viral RNA accumulation in infected cells. Viral dsRNA is thought to activate protein kinase PKR; an important mediator of innate immunity. In(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the role of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) biotype on the establishment of fetal infection in cattle. ANIMALS 30 mixed-breed pregnant cows. PROCEDURE Pregnant cows were inoculated oronasally with either i-WNADL, originating from an infectious BVDV cDNA clone of the National Animal Disease Laboratory (NADL) isolate, or the(More)
A novel mutant of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was found with a virion assembly phenotype attributable to an insertion into the NS5B polymerase locus. This mutant, termed 5B-741, was engineered by reverse genetics to express NS5B with a C-terminal peptide tag of 22 amino acids. Electroporation of bovine cells with genomic RNA from this mutant showed(More)
We report on the highly potent and selective antipestivirus activity of 5-[(4-bromophenyl)methyl]-2-phenyl-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine (BPIP). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) for inhibition of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-induced cytopathic effect formation was 0.04 +/- 0.01 microM. Comparable reduction of viral RNA synthesis (EC50 = 0.12 +/-(More)
Yellow fever virus (YFV) belongs to the Flavivirus genus and causes an important disease. An alarming resurgence of viral circulation and the expansion of YFV-endemic zones have been detected in Africa and South America in recent years. NS5 is a viral protein that contains methyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains, which are(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the influence of the viral protein N(pro) on virulence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and on type I interferon responses in calves. ANIMALS 10 calves, 4 to 6 months of age. PROCEDURES BVDV virulence and type I interferon responses of calves (n = 5) infected with a noncytopathic BVDV with a deleted N(pro) were compared(More)
A selective trans-packaging system was developed to produce and isolate bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) pseudo-particles with complementing reporter replicons and their packaging proteins expressed in trans with recombinant vaccinia virus. The encapsidation of replicon rNS3-5B was dependent not only on the in trans expression of structural proteins C,(More)