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Human fungal pathogens have become an increasingly important medical problem with the explosion in the number of immunocompromised patients as a result of cancer, steroid therapy, chemotherapy, and AIDS. Additionally, the globalization of travel and expansion of humankind into previously undisturbed habitats have led to the reemergence of old fungi and new(More)
A 120-kD glycoprotein antigen abundantly expressed on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts is a target of cellular and humoral immune responses in human infection. To investigate the antigen and immune response more carefully at the molecular level, we screened an expression library from B. dermatitidis to identify clones that encode this antigen, designated(More)
The 'hygiene hypothesis' has been proposed to explain apparent increases in autoimmune disease and allergy in areas of the world with improved health care and sanitation. This hypothesis proposes that the lack of serious childhood infections impairs development of an appropriately educated immune response. Imbalance of Th1 and Th2 responses and lack of(More)
Recent studies of the dimorphic fungal pathogens Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis have suggested a role in virulence for the cell surface carbohydrate alpha-(1,3)-glucan. To investigate a possible basis for alpha-(1,3)-glucan in the pathogenicity and virulence of the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis, we examined three(More)
Progressive granuloma formation is a hallmark of chronic mycobacterial infection. Granulomas are localized, protective inflammatory reactions initiated by CD4+ T cells, which contribute to control of bacterial growth and blockade of bacterial dissemination. In order to understand the costimulatory requirements that allow CD4+ T cells to directly or(More)
Chronic infection with mycobacteria is controlled by the formation of granulomas. The failure of granuloma maintenance results in reactivation of disease. Macrophages are the dominant cell type in granulomas, but CD4+ T cells are the master organizers of granuloma structure and function. Recent work points to an unrecognized role for nonspecific T cells in(More)
The hallmark of Schistosoma mansoni infection is the formation of liver granulomas around deposited ova. The initiation of granuloma formation is T cell-dependent since granulomas are not formed in their absence. We investigated whether a few T cells arrive to initiate the inflammatory lesion and subsequently expand locally, or whether a large repertoire of(More)
Granulomatous inflammation is a form of delayed type hypersensitivity reaction that is involved in protection against chronic infections. Granulomatous inflammation can also occur without any clear inciting stimulus such as in sarcoidosis. An in depth knowledge of granuloma formation is essential to our understanding of protection against chronic infection(More)
Infectious agents have been proposed to influence susceptibility to autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. We induced a Th1-mediated central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice with an ongoing infection with Mycobacterium bovis strain bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to study this(More)
Granuloma formation is a form of delayed-type hypersensitivity requiring CD4(+) T cells. Granulomas control the growth and dissemination of pathogens, preventing host inflammation from harming surrounding tissues. Using a murine model of Mycobacterium bovis strain bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection we studied the extent of T cell heterogeneity present(More)