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Although fungi, bacteria, and specific bacterial taxa, such as the actinomycetes, have been studied extensively in various habitats, few studies have examined them simultaneously, especially on decomposing leaves in streams. In this study, sugar maple and white oak leaves were incubated in a stream in northeastern Ohio for 181 days during which samples were(More)
In Upper Three Runs Creek (Aiken, S.C.) and many other environments, less than 1% of bacteria visible microscopically can be cultured. Exploitation of molecular biology techniques has led to development of new methods, such as extraction of nucleic acids from soils or sediments, to study the dominant, nonculturable bacteria. The purpose of this study was to(More)
Principle factors involved in effective vascular occlusion were identified and incorporated into a computer program designed to calculate the minimal occlusion force (MOF) in accordance with a modified version of Laplace's law. In vivo, the carotid arteries of 14 guinea pigs were occluded for one hour at an experimentally determined MOF or MOF + 50. A good(More)
A mathematical analysis of the minimum occlusion force necessary to occlude small vessels based on the parametric influence of blood pressure, vessel diameter, clamp width, and vessel shape after clamping was performed. The results were confirmed by in vivo experimentation with 60 rat aortas (of 1.8 to 2.4 mm caliber) using a variable-force clamp gauge(More)
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and inorganic nutrients may affect microbial communities in streams, but little is known about the impact of these factors on specific taxa within bacterial assemblages in biofilms. In this study, nutrient diffusing artificial substrates were used to examine bacterial responses to DOM (i.e., glucose, leaf leachate, and algal(More)
Many methods for detecting model genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) in experimental ecosystems rely on cultivation of introduced cells. In this study, survival of Escherichia coli was monitored with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. This approach allowed enumeration of GEMs by both plating and microscopy. Use of the GFP-marked GEMs(More)
Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia is a common environmental bacterium which can be pathogenic for plants and humans. In this study, four strategies were used to identify aquatic isolates: API test strips, hybridization with species-specific DNA probes for the 16S and 23S rRNA genes, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles, and growth on selective medium(More)
Bacterial phenotypes result from responses to environmental conditions under which these organisms grow; reduced gravity has been demonstrated in many studies as an environmental condition that profoundly influences microorganisms. In this study, we focused on low-shear stress, modeled reduced gravity (MRG) conditions and examined, for Escherichia coli and(More)
The population sizes of three bacterial species, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Burkholderia cepacia, and Pseudomonas putida, were examined in water and sediment from nine streams in different parts of the United States using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Population sizes were determined from three sites (upstream, midstream, and downstream) in(More)
Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are strongly coupled across ecosystems due to stoichiometrically balanced assimilatory demand as well as dissimilatory processes such as denitrification. Microorganisms mediate these biogeochemical cycles, but how microbial communities respond to environmental changes, such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) availability, and how(More)