Laura G. Brown

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The male-specific region of the Y chromosome, the MSY, differentiates the sexes and comprises 95% of the chromosome's length. Here, we report that the MSY is a mosaic of heterochromatic sequences and three classes of euchromatic sequences: X-transposed, X-degenerate and ampliconic. These classes contain all 156 known transcription units, which include 78(More)
We have detected deletions of portions of the Y chromosome long arm in 12 of 89 men with azoospermia (no sperm in semen). No Y deletions were detected in their male relatives or in 90 other fertile males. The 12 deletions overlap, defining a region likely to contain one or more genes required for spermatogenesis (the Azoospermia Factor, AZF). Deletion of(More)
Deletions of the AZFc (azoospermia factor c) region of the Y chromosome are the most common known cause of spermatogenic failure. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of AZFc by identifying and distinguishing between near-identical amplicons (massive repeat units) using an iterative mapping–sequencing process. A complex of three palindromes, the(More)
Many human Y-chromosomal deletions are thought to severely impair reproductive fitness, which precludes their transmission to the next generation and thus ensures their rarity in the population. Here we report a 1.6-Mb deletion that persists over generations and is sufficiently common to be considered a polymorphism. We hypothesized that this deletion might(More)
A deletion map of the human Y chromosome was constructed by testing 96 individuals with partial Y chromosomes for the presence or absence of many DNA loci. The individuals studied included XX males, XY females, and persons in whom chromosome banding had revealed translocated, deleted, isodicentric, or ring Y chromosomes. Most of the 132 Y chromosomal loci(More)
Although much structural polymorphism in the human genome has been catalogued, the kinetics of underlying change remain largely unexplored. Because human Y chromosomes are clonally inherited, it has been possible to capture their detailed relationships in a robust, worldwide genealogical tree. Examination of structural variation across this tree opens(More)
The presence or absence of the Y chromosome determines whether a mammalian embryo develops as a male or female. In humans, genetic deletion analysis of "sex-reversed" individuals has identified a small portion of the Y chromosome necessary and sufficient to induce testicular differentiation of the bipotential gonad. We report the cloning of a 230-kilobase(More)
It is widely believed that most or all Y–chromosomal genes were once shared with the X chromosome. The DAZ gene is a candidate for the human Y–chromosomal Azoospermia Factor (AZF). We report multiple copies of DAZ (>99% identical in DNA sequence) clustered in the AZF region and a functional DAZ homologue (DAZH) on human chromosome 3. The entire gene family(More)
The DAZ genes are candidate fertility factors that lie within the human Y chromosome's AZFc region, whose deletion is a common cause of spermatogenic failure. The number of DAZ genes has been difficult to determine, in part because the nucleotide sequences of the DAZ genes are nearly identical. Here, fluorescence in situ hybridization and characterization(More)
Massive palindromes in the human Y chromosome harbor mirror-image gene pairs essential for spermatogenesis. During evolution, these gene pairs have been maintained by intrapalindrome, arm-to-arm recombination. The mechanism of intrapalindrome recombination and risk of harmful effects are unknown. We report 51 patients with isodicentric Y (idicY) chromosomes(More)