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The biochemical basis for the regulation of fibre-type determination in skeletal muscle is not well understood. In addition to the expression of particular myofibrillar proteins, type I (slow-twitch) fibres are much higher in mitochondrial content and are more dependent on oxidative metabolism than type II (fast-twitch) fibres. We have previously identified(More)
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is a nuclear hormone receptor that functions as the bile acid receptor. In addition to the critical role FXR plays in bile acid metabolism and transport, it regulates a variety of genes important in lipoprotein metabolism. We demonstrate that FXR also plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism via regulation of(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) has been shown to play an important role in energy metabolism by coordinating transcriptional programs involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, adaptive thermogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation. PGC-1alpha also plays a crucial role in cholesterol metabolism by(More)
We characterize the ability of the liver X receptor (LXRalpha [NR1H3] and LXRbeta [NR1H2]) agonist, T0901317, to activate the farnesoid X receptor (FXR [NR4H4]). Although T0901317 is a much more potent activator of LXR than FXR, this ligand actually activates FXR more potently than a natural bile acid FXR ligand, chenodeoxycholic acid. Thus, the FXR(More)
Fenofibrate is clinically successful in treating hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia presumably through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-dependent induction of genes that control fatty acid beta-oxidation. Lipid homeostasis and cholesterol metabolism also are regulated by the nuclear oxysterol receptors, liver X(More)
Peroxisomes are the exclusive site for the beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids of more than 20 carbons in length (VLCFAs). Although the bulk of dietary long-chain fatty acids are oxidized in the mitochondria, VLCFAs cannot be catabolized in mitochondria and must be shortened first by peroxisomal beta-oxidation. The regulation of peroxisomal,(More)
Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) gene transcription in fetal lung explants is stimulated by factors that increase intracellular cAMP. In transfected type II cells, expression of fusion genes containing 991 bp of 5'-flanking DNA from the rabbit SP-A gene linked to the human GH gene as reporter is stimulated more than 20-fold by cAMP. Mutagenesis of a putative(More)
Control of plasma cholesterol levels is a major therapeutic strategy for management of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) levels decreases morbidity and mortality, this therapeutic intervention only translates into a 25-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high LDL-c level is(More)
BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a syndrome characterized by the rapid loss of the kidney excretory function and is strongly associated with increased early and long-term patient morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of AKI is challenging; therefore we profiled plasma microRNA in an effort to identify potential diagnostic circulating markers of(More)
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) is a bile acid-responsive nuclear receptor that plays critical roles in the transcriptional regulation genes involved in cholesterol, bile acid, triglyceride, and carbohydrate metabolism. By microarray analysis of hepatic genes from female Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats treated with the FXR agonist GW4064, we have(More)