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INTRODUCTION We aim to establish norms of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in 20 different regions of the brain in healthy human volunteers. METHODS Thirty-one individuals were examined for ADC and FA in 20 regions of the brain using a single-shot, spin echo, echo planar diffusion tensor imaging sequence with 32(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cortical and spinal motor neuron dysfunction. Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have previously shown hypointense signal in the motor cortex on T(2)-weighted images in some ALS patients, however, the cause of this finding is unknown. To(More)
UNLABELLED The statistical reliability of diffusion property measurements was evaluated in ten healthy subjects using deterministic fiber tracking to localize tracts affected in motor neuron disease: corticospinal tract (CST), uncinate fasciculus (UNC), and the corpus callosum in its entirety (CC), and its genu (GE), motor (CCM), and splenium (SP) fibers(More)
Primary lateral sclerosis is a sporadic disorder characterized by slowly progressive corticospinal dysfunction. Primary lateral sclerosis differs from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by its lack of lower motor neuron signs and long survival. Few pathological studies have been carried out on patients with primary lateral sclerosis, and the relationship between(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging measures have been proposed as objective markers to study upper motor neuron loss in motor neuron disorders. Cross-sectional studies have identified imaging differences between groups of healthy controls and patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) that correlate with disease severity,(More)
INTRODUCTION Executive dysfunction occurs in many patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but it has not been well studied in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS). The aims of this study were to (1) compare cognitive function in PLS to that in ALS patients, (2) explore the relationship between performance on specific cognitive tests and diffusion(More)
PURPOSE Learning a skilled movement is associated with more efficient use of subcortical motor circuits which can coordinate features of the movements such as the timing and patterns of activation of different muscles. Learning a motor skill could strengthen spinal interneuron circuits that facilitate the movement. We hypothesized that learning a simple,(More)
This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may(More)
OBJECTIVE The objectives of the study were (1) to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pseudobulbar affect (PBA) in patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in an outpatient clinic population, and (2) to test the hypothesis that damage of inputs to the cerebellum, leading to cerebellar dysmodulation,(More)
We hypothesized that the corticospinal system undergoes functional changes in long-term polio survivors. Central motor conduction times (CMCTs) to the four limbs were measured in 24 polio survivors using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Resting motor thresholds and CMCTs were normal. In 17 subjects whose legs were affected by polio and 13 healthy(More)
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