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BACKGROUND Previous assessments have highlighted that less than a quarter of countries are on track to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4), which calls for a two-thirds reduction in mortality in children younger than 5 years between 1990 and 2015. In view of policy initiatives and investments made since 2000, it is important to see if there is(More)
Stimulation of the acetylcholine muscarinic m2 receptor (m2R) expressed in Rat 1a fibroblasts results in the activation of the cytoplasmic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Concomitant with carbachol stimulation of the m2R was the activation of MEK (MAPK kinase) and Raf. MEK is the dual function kinase that phosphorylates and activates MAPK. Raf is a(More)
BACKGROUND Metal stents are frequently used for palliation of malignant dysphagia. Recently, a new stent design, the partially covered Wallflex stent (Boston Scientific, Natick, Mass), has been introduced. OBJECTIVE To determine clinical effectiveness and safety of the esophageal Wallflex stent for the palliation of dysphagia. DESIGN A prospective(More)
Residual memory deficits may represent a problem to the everyday functioning of a large number of people, including those who have sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present exploratory study sought to investigate the interrelationships between subjective memory reports, performance on traditional memory tests, and performance on tests of(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic predisposition and gliadin exposure are known to be crucial factors in the development of coeliac disease. Circumstantial evidence suggests that other unidentified environmental factors may also be of pathogenetic importance. AIM To define the relation between cigarette smoking and the risk of development of symptomatic adult onset(More)
BACKGROUND Adult deaths are a crucial priority for global health. Causes of adult death are important components of Millennium Development Goals 5 and 6. However, adult mortality has received little policy attention, resources, or monitoring efforts. This study aimed to estimate worldwide mortality in men and women aged 15-59 years. METHODS We compiled a(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS An important component of enteric inhibitory neurotransmission is mediated by a purine neurotransmitter, such as adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), binding to P2Y1 receptors and activating small conductance K(+) channels. In murine colon β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD) is released with ATP and mimics the pharmacology of(More)
Smooth muscle of the uterus stays remarkably quiescent during normal pregnancy to allow sufficient time for development of the fetus. At present the mechanisms leading to uterine quiescence during pregnancy and how the suppression of activity is relieved at term are poorly understood. Myometrial excitability is governed by ion channels, and a major(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The Rho-kinase pathway regulates agonist-induced contractions in several smooth muscles, including the intestine, urinary bladder and uterus, via dynamic changes in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. However, there is evidence that Rho-kinase also modulates other cellular effectors such as ion channels. (More)