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Inability to form new memories is an early clinical sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is ample evidence that the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide plays a key role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Soluble, bio-derived oligomers of Abeta are proposed as the key mediators of synaptic and cognitive dysfunction, but more tractable models of Abeta-mediated(More)
Human sirtuins are a family of seven conserved proteins (SIRT1-7). The most investigated is the silent mating type information regulation-2 homolog (SIRT1, NM_012238), which was associated with neuroprotection in models of polyglutamine toxicity or Alzheimer's disease (AD) and whose activation by the phytocompound resveratrol (RES) has been described. We(More)
Since the metabolic activity of the colonic flora plays a definite role in colon cancer and an increased incidence of this disease is reported after cholecystectomy, we studied the metabolic activity of the colonic flora in a group of postcholecystectomy patients and matched controls by measuring, as representative end products of the bacterial metabolism,(More)
beta-Amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutations cause familial Alzheimer's disease with nearly complete penetrance. We found an APP mutation [alanine-673-->valine-673 (A673V)] that causes disease only in the homozygous state, whereas heterozygous carriers were unaffected, consistent with a recessive Mendelian trait of inheritance. The A673V mutation affected(More)
Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass in mammals. We have studied myostatin expression during embryonic and post-hatching development in zebrafish by semiquantitative RT-PCR. The transcript is present in just-fertilized eggs and declines at 8 h post-fertilization (hpf),(More)
The mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) growth hormone (tGH) gene have been investigated. Transient transfection assays, using deletion mutants of the tGH promoter, demonstrated that the -226/+24 5'-flanking region, bearing three binding sites for the pituitary-specific transcription factor(More)
BACKGROUND Environmental toxicants are allegedly involved in decreasing semen quality in recent decades; however, definitive proof is not yet available. In 1976 an accident exposed residents in Seveso, Italy, to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigate reproductive hormones and sperm quality in(More)
In zebrafish, ovulated oocytes contain both maternal cortisol and the mRNA for the glucocorticoid receptor (gr), which is spread as granular structures throughout the ooplasm. At 0.2 hpf, this transcript is relocated in the blastodisc area and partitioned among blastomeres. At 6-8 hpf, it is replaced by zygotic transcript. We used morpholinos to block(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), the dynamic interface between the nervous tissue and the blood, is composed by endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides and their receptors (the purinergic system) constitute a widely diffused signaling system involved in many pathophysiological processes. However, the role of this(More)
"Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies" (TSE) are a group of degenerative progressive fatal disorders of the CNS, affecting both humans and animals. The main pathogenic event is the conversion of cellular prion protein from the normal, enzyme-sensitive (PrPsen), to the insoluble proteinase K-resistant isoform (PrPres). Since the new juvenile variant of(More)