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When perceiving, explaining, or criticizing human behavior, people distinguish between intentional and unintentional actions. To do so, they rely on a shared folk concept of intentionality. In contrast to past speculative models, this article provides an empirically based model of this concept. Study 1 demonstrates that people agree substantially in their(More)
Attribution research has focused on how people explain behavior; the present paper examines which behaviors they explain. The authors introduce a framework that specifies when people wonder about and explain an event. Applied to behavior, the framework predicts which behavioral events (intentional vs. unintentional and observable vs. unobservable) actors(More)
There is a large amount of cross-sectional evidence for a midlife low in the life cycle of human happiness and well-being (a 'U shape'). Yet no genuinely longitudinal inquiry has uncovered evidence for a U-shaped pattern. Thus some researchers believe the U is a statistical artefact. We reexamine this fundamental cross-disciplinary question. We suggest a(More)
Findings based on studies of daily life consistently associate older ages with relatively positive emotional experience, suggesting that older adults may regulate emotions more effectively than younger adults. Findings from laboratory studies are equivocal, however, with mixed evidence for age-related improvements in use of emotion regulatory strategies. In(More)
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