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VCP (VCP/p97) is a ubiquitously expressed member of the AAA(+)-ATPase family of chaperone-like proteins that regulates numerous cellular processes including chromatin decondensation, homotypic membrane fusion and ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation by the proteasome. Mutations in VCP cause a multisystem degenerative disease consisting of inclusion body(More)
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases based on the presence of deposits consisting of ubiquitylated proteins in affected neurons. It has been postulated that aggregation-prone proteins associated with these disorders, such as α-synuclein, β-amyloid peptide, and polyglutamine proteins, compromise UPS(More)
The multifunctional AAA-ATPase p97 is one of the most abundant and conserved proteins in eukaryotic cells. The p97/Npl4/Ufd1 complex dislocates proteins that fail the protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol where they are subject to degradation by the ubiquitin/proteasome system. Substrate dislocation depends on the unfoldase(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease caused by a trinucleotide (CAG) repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene. Patients with SBMA have weakness, atrophy, and fasciculations in the bulbar and extremity muscles. Individuals with CAG repeat lengths greater than 62 have not previously been reported. We evaluated a(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, Kennedy's disease) is a motor neuron disease caused by polyglutamine repeat expansion in the androgen receptor. Although degeneration occurs in the spinal cord and muscle, the exact mechanism is not clear. Induced pluripotent stem cells from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy patients provide a useful model for(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an X-linked motor neuron disease caused by polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor. Patients develop slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness, muscle atrophy and fasciculations. Affected individuals often show gynecomastia, testicular atrophy and reduced fertility as a result of mild androgen insensitivity.(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, also known as Kennedy's disease) is one of nine neurodegenerative disorders that are caused by expansion of polyglutamine-encoding CAG repeats. Intracellular accumulation of abnormal proteins in these diseases, a pathological hallmark, is associated with defects in protein homeostasis. Enhancement of the cellular(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a currently untreatable adult-onset neuromuscular disease caused by expansion of a polyglutamine repeat in the androgen receptor (AR). In SBMA, as in other polyglutamine diseases, a toxic gain of function in the mutant protein is an important factor in the disease mechanism; therefore, reducing the mutant protein(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is caused by polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor. As an X-linked disease dependent on androgens, symptoms and findings are only fully manifest in males. Here we describe a 40-year-old male-to-female transgender SBMA patient who developed full disease manifestations despite undetectable levels of androgens. We(More)