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Although biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) have been discovered for hundreds of bacterial metabolites, our knowledge of their diversity remains limited. Here, we used a novel algorithm to systematically identify BGCs in the extensive extant microbial sequencing data. Network analysis of the predicted BGCs revealed large gene cluster families, the vast(More)
Bacterially-produced small molecules exert profound influences on animal health, morphogenesis, and evolution through poorly understood mechanisms. In one of the closest living relatives of animals, the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta, we find that rosette colony development is induced by the prey bacterium Algoriphagus machipongonensis and its close(More)
In complex biological systems, small molecules often mediate microbe-microbe and microbe-host interactions. Using a systematic approach, we identified 3,118 small-molecule biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in genomes of human-associated bacteria and studied their representation in 752 metagenomic samples from the NIH Human Microbiome Project. Remarkably, we(More)
Activated protein C (APC) has potent anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties that limit clot formation, inhibit apoptosis, and protect vascular endothelial cell barrier integrity. In this study, the role of N-linked glycans in modulating APC endothelial cytoprotective signaling via endothelial cell protein C receptor/protease-activated receptor 1(More)
Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is a very important fish virus in the Northern hemisphere and there is continued interest in understanding the mechanisms of its pathogenesis and persistence in fish. In this study, the permissive fish cell lines SHK-1, CHSE-214 and TO were used to determine whether ISAV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) is due to(More)
While the human gut microbiota are suspected to produce diffusible small molecules that modulate host signaling pathways, few of these molecules have been identified. Species of Bacteroides and their relatives, which often comprise .50% of the gut community, are unusual among bacteria in that their membrane is rich in sphingolipids, a class of signaling(More)
We studied a patient (J.J.) with bilateral damage to those regions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) thought to be involved in prism adaptation. We demonstrated, for the first time in a parietal patient, that J.J. was unable to adapt to the visual perturbation induced by the optical prisms with either hand within four times the number of trials(More)
BACKGROUND Extremely preterm or extremely low birth weight (ELBW) children who are non-disabled and otherwise healthy are at risk of neurodevelopmental impairments. Further understanding of these impairments is needed before commencement of formal education to optimise participation levels at a critical time point for these children. AIMS To explore motor(More)