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Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. As the agent of the Irish potato famine in the mid-nineteenth century, P. infestans has had a tremendous effect on human history, resulting in(More)
Draft genome sequences have been determined for the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. Oömycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopila with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms, and the presence of many Phytophthora genes of probable phototroph origin supports a(More)
Many oomycete and fungal plant pathogens are obligate biotrophs, which extract nutrients only from living plant tissue and cannot grow apart from their hosts. Although these pathogens cause substantial crop losses, little is known about the molecular basis or evolution of obligate biotrophy. Here, we report the genome sequence of the oomycete(More)
Transcriptional reprogramming forms a major part of a plant's response to pathogen infection. Many individual components and pathways operating during plant defense have been identified, but our knowledge of how these different components interact is still rudimentary. We generated a high-resolution time series of gene expression profiles from a single(More)
Conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) in DNA are reliable pointers to regulatory elements controlling gene expression. Using a comparative genomics approach with four dicotyledonous plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, papaya [Carica papaya], poplar [Populus trichocarpa], and grape [Vitis vinifera]), we detected hundreds of CNSs upstream of Arabidopsis(More)
Oomycete pathogens cause diverse plant diseases. To successfully colonize their hosts, they deliver a suite of effector proteins that can attenuate plant defenses. In the oomycete downy mildews, effectors carry a signal peptide and an RxLR motif. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis).(More)
Xenorhabdus strains from entomopathogenic nematodes isolated from United Kingdom soils by using the insect bait entrapment method were characterized by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, four housekeeping genes (asd, ompR, recA, and serC) and the flagellin gene (fliC). Most strains (191/197) were found to have genes with greatest similarity to those(More)
Transcriptional reprogramming is integral to effective plant defense. Pathogen effectors act transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally to suppress defense responses. A major challenge to understanding disease and defense responses is discriminating between transcriptional reprogramming associated with microbial-associated molecular pattern(More)
A recently identified class of proteins conferring insecticidal activity to several bacteria within the Enterobacteriaceae family have potential for control of commercially important insect pests. Here, we report the first purification, biophysical characterisation and 3-D structural analysis of one of the toxin components, XptA1, from Xenorhabdus(More)
There is tension within Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) assessments between the richness of differing practitioner's perspectives and maintaining a basic level of assessment that is acceptable to all disciplines. Standardized assessments are mandatory in research, yet are rarely applied systematically across CAMHS.The use of standardized(More)