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Brain deposition of the amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) is a frequent complication of Down's syndrome (DS) patients. Abeta peptide is generated by endoproteolytic processing of Abeta precursor protein by gamma and beta secretases. Recently a transmembrane aspartyl protease, BACE, has been identified as the beta-secretase, and its homologous BACE-2 has also(More)
OBJECTIVES Sex steroid hormones are implicated in the cognitive processes of the adult brain. Among studies reporting a positive effect of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on cognition, the most consistent evidence is that it enhances verbal memory and visuospatial functions. In the present study we investigated the effect of ERT on cognition and on brain(More)
Mutations in presenilin (PS) genes account for the majority of the cases of the familial form of Alzheimer's disease (FAD). PS mutations have been correlated with both over-production of the amyloid-beta-42 (Abeta42) peptide and alterations of cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We here show, for the first time, the effect of the recently described PS2(More)
There is now considerable evidence that the gene encoding for tau protein (MAPT) is implicated in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The role of MAPT haplotypes in neurodegenerative diseases has been suggested, but their contribution in familial dementia has not been extensively investigated. Here, we investigated (1) the association between the MAPT haplotypes(More)
CST3 is the coding gene for cystatin C (CysC). CST3 B/B homozygosity is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer disease. We performed CysC analysis on human primary skin fibroblasts obtained from donors carrying A/A, A/B, and B/B CST3. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that the release of the B variant of CysC has a different temporal(More)
Mutations in the presenilin genes PS1 and PS2, the major cause of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), are associated with alterations in Ca2+ signalling. In contrast to the majority of FAD-linked PS1 mutations, which cause an overload of intracellular Ca2+ pools, the FAD-linked PS2 mutation M239I reduces Ca2+ release from intracellular stores [Zatti, G.,(More)
Mutations in the presenilin genes account for the majority of familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) cases. In the present report we demonstrated that the FAD-linked presenilin 2 mutations (PS2 M239I and T122R) alter cystatin C trafficking in mouse primary neurons reducing secretion of its glycosylated form. These mutations showed a different impact on cystatin(More)
We describe an Italian pedigree with hereditary dementia associated with a novel T122R mutation in the presenilin-2 gene (PSEN2). The clinical history, symptom presentation, and structural neuroimaging were consistent with an atypical form of dementia. Disease expression varied within family members. One in a pair of mutated monozygotic twins had evident(More)
Mutations in gene encoding presenilin 1 (PS1) are responsible for the majority of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) cases. We studied PS1 localization in HEK293 cells and in primary neurons obtained from rat cortex and hippocampus. We first demonstrated that PS1-CTF, but neither PS1-FL nor PS1-NTF, is released into the medium as a soluble and(More)
Deposits of tau and alpha-synuclein are hallmarks of distinct neurodegenerative diseases: tauopathies and alpha-synucleinopathies. Affinity chromatography experiments demonstrated a direct binding of the two proteins, and alpha-synuclein was shown to induce fibrillization of tau. Here, we verify the presence of this physical interaction by using different(More)