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Macrophage uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is thought to play a central role in foam cell formation and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We demonstrate here that oxLDL activates PPARgamma-dependent transcription through a novel signaling pathway involving scavenger receptor-mediated particle uptake. Moreover, we identify two of the(More)
The transcriptional corepressors SMRT and N-CoR function as silencing mediators for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors. Here we show that SMRT and N-CoR directly interact with mSin3A, a corepressor for the Mad-Max heterodimer and a homolog of the yeast global-transcriptional repressor Sin3p. In addition, we demonstrate that the recently characterized(More)
We report here the identification of a novel cofactor, ACTR, that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates their transcriptional activities in a hormone-dependent fashion. ACTR also recruits two other nuclear factors, CBP and P/CAF, and thus plays a central role in creating a multisubunit coactivator complex. In addition, and unexpectedly, we show(More)
Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non-lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this(More)
the presence of high concentrations of LDL (Brown and Goldstein, 1983). It is now clear that uptake of LDL by foam cells is mediated by a group of cell surface proteins termed scavenger receptors. Brown and Goldstein and * The Salk Institute for Biological Studies colleagues were the first to demonstrate that these re-† Howard Hughes Medical Institute(More)
Cells are constantly exposed to a large variety of lipids. Traditionally, these molecules were thought to serve as simple energy storing molecules. More recently it has been realized that they can also initiate and regulate signaling events that will decisively influence development, cellular differentiation, metabolism and related functions through the(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a lipid-activated transcription factor regulating lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). These immune cells exposed to distinct inflammatory milieu show cell type specification as a result of altered gene expression. We demonstrate here a mechanism how(More)
In mountainous regions, climate warming is expected to shift species' ranges to higher altitudes. Evidence for such shifts is still mostly from revisitations of historical sites. We present recent (2001 to 2008) changes in vascular plant species richness observed in a standardized monitoring network across Europe's major mountain ranges. Species have moved(More)
BACKGROUND The low-pressure water dissection technique of Toth, first reported in 1987, is a method to cautiously open neurosurgical cleavage planes such as the sylvian fissure or the interhemispheric space, and the interfaces between extraparenchymal masses and the adjacent brain. The aim of this technical report is to present our long-term experience with(More)
PPARgamma is essential for adipogenesis and metabolic homeostasis. We describe mutations in the DNA and ligand binding domains of human PPARgamma in lipodystrophic, severe insulin resistance. These receptor mutants lack DNA binding and transcriptional activity but can translocate to the nucleus, interact with PPARgamma coactivators and inhibit coexpressed(More)