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The cytokines controlling the development of human interleukin (IL) 17--producing T helper cells in vitro have been difficult to identify. We addressed the question of the development of human IL-17--producing T helper cells in vivo by quantifying the production and secretion of IL-17 by fresh T cells ex vivo, and by T cell blasts expanded in vitro from(More)
The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein (WASp) is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton in hematopoietic cells. Mutations of the WASp gene cause WAS. Although WASp is involved in various immune cell functions, its role in invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells has never been investigated. Defects of iNKT cells could indeed contribute to several WAS(More)
Despite continuous contact with fungi, immunocompetent individuals rarely develop pro-inflammatory antifungal immune responses. The underlying tolerogenic mechanisms are incompletely understood. Using both mouse models and human patients, we show that infection with the human pathogenic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans induces a distinct(More)
Immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) deficiencies are rare primary immunodeficiencies, characterized by a lack of switched isotype (IgG, IgA, or IgE) production, variably associated with abnormal somatic hypermutation (SHM). Deficiencies in CD40 ligand, CD40, activation-induced cytidine deaminase, and uracil-N-glycosylase may account for this(More)
Complement immunodeficiencies (excluding hereditary angioedema and mannose binding lectin deficiency) are rare. Published literature consists largely of case reports and small series. We collated data from 18 cities across Europe to provide an overview of primarily homozygous, rather than partial genotypes and their impact and management. Patients were(More)
OBJECTIVE To report an exceptional association between X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. DESIGN Clinical, immunological, and histological analysis. Patient A 19-year-old male patient with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome developed typical signs and symptoms of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RESULTS The(More)
Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) is a rare inherited condition, characterized by microcephaly, chromosomal instability, immunodeficiency, and predisposition to malignancy. This retrospective study, characterizing the clinical and immunological status of patients with NBS at time of diagnosis, was designed to assess whether any parameters were useful in(More)
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