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Distinct and evolutionarily conserved signal transduction cascades mediate survival or death in response to developmental and environmental cues. The stress-activated protein kinases, or Jun N-terminal kinases (SAPKs/JNKs), are activated in response to a variety of cellular stresses such as changes in osmolarity and metabolism, DNA damage, heat shock,(More)
Weak immunogenicity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells may contribute to disease progression and inhibit effective immunotherapy. Accordingly, agents that enhance the immunogenicity of CLL cells may be useful in immunotherapeutic approaches to this disease. Since Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are major regulators of innate immunity and initiation of(More)
UNLABELLED T cell-mediated immunotherapies are promising cancer treatments. However, most patients still fail to respond to these therapies. The molecular determinants of immune resistance are poorly understood. We show that loss of PTEN in tumor cells in preclinical models of melanoma inhibits T cell-mediated tumor killing and decreases T-cell trafficking(More)
BACKGROUND Endogenous or iatrogenic antitumour immune responses can improve the course of follicular lymphoma, but might be diminished by immune checkpoints in the tumour microenvironment. These checkpoints might include effects of programmed cell death 1 (PD1), a co-inhibitory receptor that impairs T-cell function and is highly expressed on intratumoral T(More)
BACKGROUND Therapeutic targeting of the immune checkpoints cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4) and PD-1/PD-L1 has demonstrated tumor regression in clinical trials, and phase 2 trials are ongoing in glioblastoma (GBM). Previous reports have suggested that responses are more frequent in patients with tumors that express PD-L1; however, this(More)
PURPOSE An intact immune system likely contributes to the outcome of treatment and may be important for clearance of drug-resistant tumor cells and for prevention of recurrence. Although pharmacologic inhibition of BRAF(V600E) in melanoma patients, which is linked to immune suppression, results in an initial response rate, these responses are typically of(More)
Activation of the multicomponent interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) complex leads to a rapid increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of cellular proteins including the IL-2R beta and IL-2R gamma chains of the IL-2R and the RAF-1 serine threonine kinase. In addition, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) protein and activity can be immunoprecipitated(More)
Activation of T lymphocytes can result in a functional immune response, anergy or apoptosis. Functional T cell activation requires the interaction of the TCR with Ag presented by MHC molecules on APC concurrent with appropriate interactions between cell surface accessory molecules. Interestingly, the level of CD28 expression is regulated during T cell(More)
Although numerous immunotherapeutic strategies have been studied in patients with cancer, consistent induction of clinical responses remains a formidable challenge. Cancer vaccines are often successful at generating elevated numbers of tumor-specific T lymphocytes in peripheral blood, however, despite this, tumors usually continue to grow unabated. Recent(More)
Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is considered a promising modality for cancer treatment, but despite ongoing improvements, many patients do not experience clinical benefits. The tumor microenvironment is an important limiting factor in immunotherapy that has not been addressed fully in ACT treatments. In this study, we report that upregualtion of the(More)