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Magnetic resonance imaging volumetry studies report inverted U-patterns with increasing white-matter (WM) volume into middle age suggesting protracted WM maturation compared with the cortical gray matter. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to degree and direction of water permeability in biological tissues, providing in vivo indices of WM(More)
The development of cortical gray matter, white matter (WM) volume, and WM microstructure in adolescence is beginning to be fairly well characterized by structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies. However, these aspects of brain development have rarely been investigated concurrently in the same sample and hence(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the principal method for studying structural age-related brain changes in vivo. However, previous research has yielded inconsistent results, precluding understanding of structural changes of the aging brain. This inconsistency is due to methodological differences and/or different aging patterns across samples. To overcome(More)
Cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of cortical thickness and volume have shown age effects on large areas, but there are substantial discrepancies across studies regarding the localization and magnitude of effects. These discrepancies hinder understanding of effects of aging on brain morphometry, and limit the potential usefulness of(More)
Brain development during late childhood and adolescence is characterized by decreases in gray matter (GM) and increases in white matter (WM) and ventricular volume. The dynamic nature of development across different structures is, however, not well understood, and the present magnetic resonance imaging study took advantage of a whole-brain segmentation(More)
A growing body of research indicates benefits of cognitive training in older adults, but the neuronal mechanisms underlying the effect of cognitive intervention remains largely unexplored. Neuroimaging methods are sensitive to subtle changes in brain structure and show potential for enhancing our understanding of both aging- and training-related neuronal(More)
The brain's ability to alter its functional and structural architecture in response to experience and learning has been extensively studied. Mental stimulation might serve as a reserve mechanism in brain aging, but macrostructural brain changes in response to cognitive training have been demonstrated in young participants only. We examined the short-term(More)
Does accelerated cortical atrophy in aging, especially in areas vulnerable to early Alzheimer's disease (AD), unequivocally signify neurodegenerative disease or can it be part of normal aging? We addressed this in 3 ways. First, age trajectories of cortical thickness were delineated cross-sectionally (n = 1100) and longitudinally (n = 207). Second, effects(More)
MRI-based estimates of cerebral morphometric properties, e.g. cortical thickness, are pivotal to studies of normal and pathological brain changes. These measures are based on automated or manual segmentation procedures, which utilize the tissue contrast between gray and white matter on T(1)-weighted MR images. Tissue contrast is unlikely to remain a(More)
Identifying genetic variants influencing human brain structures may reveal new biological mechanisms underlying cognition and neuropsychiatric illness. The volume of the hippocampus is a biomarker of incipient Alzheimer's disease and is reduced in schizophrenia, major depression and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Whereas many brain imaging phenotypes are(More)