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UVB radiation-induced signaling in mammalian cells involves two major pathways: one that is initiated through the generation of DNA photoproducts in the nucleus and a second one that occurs independently of DNA damage and is characterized by cell surface receptor activation. The chromophore for the latter one has been unknown. Here, we report that the UVB(More)
Selenoprotein P (SeP) is the major selenoprotein in human plasma, acting as an antioxidant and serving the transport of selenium from the liver to extrahepatic tissues. We here demonstrate that the human SeP promoter responds to overexpression of FoxO1a as well as of a constitutively active form of FoxO1a. Two FoxO-responsive elements were identified and(More)
2-Methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K(3) (menadione), which is frequently used as a model quinone in cell culture and in vivo studies, was tested for its effects on gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJC). Exposure of WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells to menadione (50-100 micro M) led to a 50-75% decrease in GJIC. Different from the phorbol ester(More)
Although the primary function of myoglobin (Mb) has been considered to be cellular O2 storage and supply, recent studies have shown that Mb in addition can act as NO oxidase. Here we report that Mb also significantly contributes to the attenuation of oxidative stress in cardiac muscle. In support of this hypothesis, we found that in isolated perfused hearts(More)
Transcription factors of the forkhead box, class O (FoxO) family are important regulators of the cellular stress response and promote the cellular antioxidant defense. On one hand, FoxOs stimulate the transcription of genes coding for antioxidant proteins located in different subcellular compartments, such as in mitochondria (i.e. superoxide dismutase-2,(More)
The trace elements copper, zinc and selenium are linked together in cytosolic defense against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The latter and other hydroperoxides are subsequently reduced by the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Cytosolic(More)
Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is effectively used to treat patients with atopic dermatitis and other T cell mediated, inflammatory skin diseases. In the present study, successful phototherapy of atopic dermatitis was found to result from UVA radiation-induced apoptosis in skin-infiltrating T helper cells, leading to T cell depletion from eczematous skin.(More)
Selected biological effects of 1,4-naphthoquinone, menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) and structurally related quinones from natural sources--the 5-hydroxy-naphthoquinones juglone, plumbagin and the 2-hydroxy-naphthoquinones lawsone and lapachol--were studied in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). 1,4-naphthoquinone and menadione as well as juglone and(More)
Peroxynitrite, a potent oxidizing and nitrating species, induces covalent modifications of biomolecules in a number of pathological conditions. In previous studies with S. cerevisiae, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was identified as being especially susceptible to nitration by peroxynitrite. The activity of this enzyme was strongly(More)
Both UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm) radiation lead to an enhanced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in epidermal cells in various in-vitro and in-vivo models. It is demonstrated here that the expression of COX-2 is induced in artificial human epidermis exposed to simulated solar light (>290 nm). Employing filters eliminating specified regions(More)