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Amassments of heterochromatin in somatic cells occur in close contact with the nuclear envelope (NE) but are gapped by channel- and cone-like zones that appear largely free of heterochromatin and associated with the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). To identify proteins involved in forming such heterochromatin exclusion zones (HEZs), we used a cell culture(More)
A 681 nucleotide fragment of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome was sequenced that corresponded to the complete gene for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in 80 HBsAg- and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive sera of diverse geographical origins. These and 42 previously published HBV sequences within the S gene were used for the construction of a(More)
The serologic heterogeneity of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been established from immunodiffusion experiments for a long time. Four serotypes called subtypes of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) have been defined by two mutually exclusive determinant pairs, d/y and w/r, and a common determinant a. These subtypes are adw, ayw, adr and ayr. By(More)
The genomes of six hepatitis B viral (HBV) strains were sequenced from 10 overlapping amplificates obtained by the polymerase chain reaction. Four of the strains, specifying subtypes ayw4 and adw4q-, represented on the basis of divergency within the S gene two new genomic groups identified by us. The other two strains, encoding adrq- and of Pacific origin,(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) evolution is thought to proceed by mutations within the six genotypes. Here, we report on a viable spontaneous HCV recombinant and we show that recombination may play a role in the evolution of this virus. Previously, 149 HCV strains from St. Petersburg had been subtyped by limited sequencing within the NS5B region. In the present(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have suggested that Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a key role in eliminating hepatitis B virus (HBV). OBJECTIVES We aimed to investigate the role of mutations in different immune epitopes of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) among Iranians with hepatitis B e antigen negative chronic hepatitis B (e-CHB), and asymptomatic(More)
The genotypes of 149 HCV strains from St. Petersburg were determined by limited sequencing and phylogenetic analysis within the NS5B region. One hundred two strains derived from patients that attended infectious disease clinics, of whom 48 admitted injecting drug use, and 47 derived from dialysis patients. Subtype 3a was predominant in the patients from(More)
During the last decade, there has been a dramatic increase in intravenous drug use in young adults in Estonia with an increased incidence of both hepatitis B and C as a consequence. Since genetic data are limited regarding hepatitis C virus (HCV) strains in Estonia, the aim of the study was to characterize HCV strains in different risk groups to determine(More)
Amino acid residues 101 to 180 of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were predicted by sequencing the corresponding part of the S gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in 46 HBsAg-positive sera, which had been subtyped by immunodiffusion with respect to d/y, w/r, w1 to w4 and q. The sequences of the nine different HBV serotypes defined by these specificities(More)
Sequences of 234 complete genomes and 631 hepatitis B surface antigen genes were used to assess the worldwide diversity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Apart from the described two subgenotypes each for A and F, also B, C, and D divided into four subgenotypes each in the analysis of complete genomes supported by significant bootstrap values. The subgenotypes of(More)