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Amassments of heterochromatin in somatic cells occur in close contact with the nuclear envelope (NE) but are gapped by channel- and cone-like zones that appear largely free of heterochromatin and associated with the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). To identify proteins involved in forming such heterochromatin exclusion zones (HEZs), we used a cell culture(More)
The serologic heterogeneity of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been established from immunodiffusion experiments for a long time. Four serotypes called subtypes of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) have been defined by two mutually exclusive determinant pairs, d/y and w/r, and a common determinant a. These subtypes are adw, ayw, adr and ayr. By(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) evolution is thought to proceed by mutations within the six genotypes. Here, we report on a viable spontaneous HCV recombinant and we show that recombination may play a role in the evolution of this virus. Previously, 149 HCV strains from St. Petersburg had been subtyped by limited sequencing within the NS5B region. In the present(More)
The genotypes of 149 HCV strains from St. Petersburg were determined by limited sequencing and phylogenetic analysis within the NS5B region. One hundred two strains derived from patients that attended infectious disease clinics, of whom 48 admitted injecting drug use, and 47 derived from dialysis patients. Subtype 3a was predominant in the patients from(More)
A 681 nucleotide fragment of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome was sequenced that corresponded to the complete gene for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in 80 HBsAg- and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive sera of diverse geographical origins. These and 42 previously published HBV sequences within the S gene were used for the construction of a(More)
During the last decade, there has been a dramatic increase in intravenous drug use in young adults in Estonia with an increased incidence of both hepatitis B and C as a consequence. Since genetic data are limited regarding hepatitis C virus (HCV) strains in Estonia, the aim of the study was to characterize HCV strains in different risk groups to determine(More)
Amino acid residues 101 to 180 of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were predicted by sequencing the corresponding part of the S gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in 46 HBsAg-positive sera, which had been subtyped by immunodiffusion with respect to d/y, w/r, w1 to w4 and q. The sequences of the nine different HBV serotypes defined by these specificities(More)
The genomes of six hepatitis B viral (HBV) strains were sequenced from 10 overlapping amplificates obtained by the polymerase chain reaction. Four of the strains, specifying subtypes ayw4 and adw4q-, represented on the basis of divergency within the S gene two new genomic groups identified by us. The other two strains, encoding adrq- and of Pacific origin,(More)
The surface (S) genes of 12 hepatitis B viruses (HBVs) encoding nine different serotypes of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. These represented the eight strains of HBV, P1 to P8, defined at an international workshop on HBsAg subtypes in Paris in 1975, and the adrq- subtype. The S genes from(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtypes were determined in 125 Iranian patients by phylogenetic analysis within the NS5B or 5'-UTR/core regions. Subtypes 1a and 3a were predominant accounting for 47 and 36%, whereas 1b and 4 accounted for 8 and 7%. This subtype distribution differs from that of Turkey and Pakistan, where subtypes 1b and 3a dominate and also from(More)