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Tocopherols are lipophilic antioxidants that are synthesized exclusively in photosynthetic organisms. In most higher plants, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol are predominant with their ratio being under spatial and temporal control. While alpha-tocopherol accumulates predominantly in photosynthetic tissue, seeds are rich in gamma-tocopherol. To date, little is(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana chlorophyll a/b-binding protein underexpressed 1 (cue1) mutant shows a reticulate leaf phenotype and is defective in a plastidic phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)/phosphate translocator (AtPPT1). A functional AtPPT1 providing plastids with PEP for the shikimate pathway is therefore essential for correct leaf development. The Arabidopsis(More)
Colletotrichum species are fungal pathogens that devastate crop plants worldwide. Host infection involves the differentiation of specialized cell types that are associated with penetration, growth inside living host cells (biotrophy) and tissue destruction (necrotrophy). We report here genome and transcriptome analyses of Colletotrichum higginsianum(More)
Fungi of the order Sebacinales (Basidiomycota) are involved in a wide spectrum of mutualistic symbioses with various plants, thereby exhibiting unique potential for biocontrol strategies. Piriformospora indica, a model organism of this fungal order, is able to increase the biomass and grain yield of crop plants, and induces local and systemic resistance to(More)
The fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis establishes a biotrophic relationship with its host plant maize (Zea mays). Hallmarks of the disease are large plant tumours in which fungal proliferation occurs. Previous studies suggested that classical defence pathways are not activated. Confocal microscopy, global expression profiling and metabolic profiling now shows(More)
When we think of extremophiles, organisms adapted to extreme environments, prokaryotes come to mind first. However, the unicellular red micro-alga Galdieria sulphuraria (Cyanidiales) is a eukaryote that can represent up to 90% of the biomass in extreme habitats such as hot sulfur springs with pH values of 0–4 and temperatures of up to 56 °C. This red alga(More)
Mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), combined with glycine decarboxylase, catalyzes an essential sequence of the photorespiratory C2 cycle, namely, the conversion of two molecules of glycine into one molecule each of CO2, NH4+, and serine. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant shm (now designated shm1-1) is defective in(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana contains 18 genes encoding Hsp70s. This heat shock protein superfamily is divided into two sub-families: DnaK and Hsp110/SSE. In order to functionally characterize members of the Hsp70 superfamily, loss-of-function mutants with reduced cytosolic Hsp70 expression were studied. AtHsp70-1 and AtHsp70-2 are constitutively expressed and(More)
Amino acids and amino acid analogs have been used in numerous genetic screens to isolate mutants deficient in amino acid biosynthetic pathways or in the regulation of amino acid metabolism. Several of these mutants exhibit relaxed feedback control of branched amino acid biosynthetic pathways and are thus resistant to accumulation of pathway end products.(More)
NAC transcription factors belong to a large family of plant-specific transcription factors with more than 100 family members in monocot and dicot species. To date, the majority of the studied NAC proteins are involved in the response to abiotic stress We have found that two NAC transcription factors, ZmNAC41 and ZmNAC100, are transcriptionally induced both(More)