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BACKGROUND Drosophila Neuroglian (Nrg) and its vertebrate homolog L1-CAM are cell-adhesion molecules (CAM) that have been well studied in early developmental processes. Mutations in the human gene result in a broad spectrum of phenotypes (the CRASH-syndrome) that include devastating neurological disorders such as spasticity and mental retardation. Although(More)
Abnormal expression of the N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor and its interacting molecules of the postsynaptic density (PSD) are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Frontal regions of neocortex including dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are essential for cognitive and behavioral functions(More)
The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is poorly understood but is likely to involve alterations in excitatory glutamatergic signaling molecules in several areas of the brain. Clinical and experimental evidence has shown that expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and intracellular NMDA receptor-interacting proteins of the glutaminergic(More)
OBJECTIVES Schizophrenia is associated with dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission, and several studies have suggested glutamatergic abnormalities in bipolar disorder. Recent data suggest involvement of the NMDA receptor signaling complex, which includes NMDA receptor subunits as well as associated intracellular interacting proteins critical for(More)
Dysregulated glutamate neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In particular, hypofunction of the NMDA glutamate receptor has been proposed to play an important role in mediating cognitive deficits in patients. The two NMDA receptor subunits, NR2A and NR2B, are distinctly regulated during development and are associated(More)
Altered glutamate signaling contributes to a myriad of neural disorders, including schizophrenia. While synaptic levels are intensely studied, nonvesicular release mechanisms, including cystine-glutamate exchange, maintain high steady-state glutamate levels in the extrasynaptic space. The existence of extrasynaptic receptors, including metabotropic group II(More)
Pharmacological and anatomical evidence suggests that abnormal glutamate neurotransmission may be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and mood disorders. Medial temporal lobe structural alterations have been implicated in schizophrenia and to a lesser extent in mood disorders. To comprehensively examine the ionotropic glutamate receptors in(More)
Several lines of evidence implicate aberrant glutamate neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In particular, compromised signaling through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has been linked to positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms of this illness. Studies in postmortem brain have identified altered expression of several(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe mental illness with profound emotional and economic burdens for those afflicted and their families. An increasing number of studies have found that schizophrenia is marked by dysregulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. While numerous studies have found alterations of postsynaptic molecules in(More)