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Based on molecular data three major clades have been recognized within Bilateria: Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, and Spiralia. Within Spiralia, small-sized and simply organized animals such as flatworms, gastrotrichs, and gnathostomulids have recently been grouped together as Platyzoa. However, the representation of putative platyzoans was low in the respective(More)
Screening of a deeply sequenced transcriptome using Illumina sequencing as well as the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini revealed a set of five opsin genes. To clarify the phylogenetic position of these genes and to elucidate the evolutionary history of opsins in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we reconstructed the(More)
Multiple visual pigments, prerequisites for color vision, are found in arthropods, but the evolutionary origin of their diversity remains obscure. In this study, we explore the opsin genes in five distantly related species of Onychophora, using deep transcriptome sequencing and screening approaches. Surprisingly, our data reveal the presence of only one(More)
Onychophorans typically possess a pair of simple eyes, inherited from the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda (Onychophora+Tardigrada+Arthropoda). These visual organs are thought to be homologous to the arthropod median ocelli, whereas the compound eyes probably evolved in the arthropod lineage. To gain insights into the ancestral function and evolution(More)
During a tempe fermentation the concentrations of linoleic, and alpha-linolenic acids (ALA) decreased while the concentration of oleic acid increased. During fatty acid synthesis Rhizopus sp. produced only gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) instead of ALA. The amount of GLA in tempe were influenced by varying external parameters. The proteolytic capacity of 36(More)
Pax family genes encode a class of transcription factors that regulate various developmental processes. To shed light on the evolutionary history of these genes in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we analyzed the Pax repertoire in the embryonic and adult transcriptomes of the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. Our data revealed(More)
Glycerids are marine annelids commonly known as bloodworms. Bloodworms have an eversible proboscis adorned with jaws connected to venom glands. Bloodworms prey on invertebrates, and it is known that the venom glands produce compounds that can induce toxic effects in animals. Yet, none of these putative toxins has been characterized on a molecular basis.(More)
Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) denotes a conserved family of homologous neuropeptides present in several invertebrate groups, including mollusks, nematodes, insects, and crustaceans (referred to here as pigment-dispersing hormone [PDH]). With regard to their encoding genes (pdf, pdh), insects possess only one, nematodes two, and decapod crustaceans up to(More)
Low character variation among onychophoran species has been an obstacle for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in the past, however we have identified a number of new and informative characters using morphological, molecular, and chromosomal techniques. Our analyses involved a detailed examination of Epiperipatus biolleyi from Costa Rica, Eoperipatus sp.(More)
Glyceridae (Annelida) are a group of venomous annelids distributed worldwide from intertidal to abyssal depths. To trace the evolutionary history and complexity of glycerid venom cocktails, a solid backbone phylogeny of this group is essential. We therefore aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of these annelids using Illumina sequencing(More)