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Distributed generation, DG, introduces multi-generator grids and new modes of operation. DG will likely introduce power electronic, PE, converters on a large scale at the low- and medium-voltage levels. DC injection into the AC grid is a threat from grid-connected PE converters that are badly structured. Low DC currents in AC current are difficult to(More)
Renewable energy facilities will constitute a major contribution to electrical power in the future. The wind turbine will, together with biomass, form the major renewables parts up to year 2030 including erection of offshore wind farms. The wind is a non-storable energy source, whose electric energy needs priming into interchangeable energy to be(More)
Acknowledgements Thanks to Susanna Määttänen who was at ABB Corporate Research, Vaasa and Timo Miettinen who is at ABB Industry Oy, Helsinki, for sharing their early LCA-work on environmental loading of converters. is commended for his professional life, starting in power electronics mid 1960's and ending early 2001 after initiating environmentally adapted(More)
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