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Eight avenanthramides, amides of anthranilic acid (1) and 5-hydroxyanthranilic acid (2), respectively, and the four cinnamic acids p-coumaric (p), caffeic (c), ferulic (f), and sinapic (s) acid, were synthesized for identification in oat extracts and for structure-antioxidant activity studies. Three compounds (2p, 2c, and 2f) were found in oat extracts. As(More)
Diaryl tellurides were found efficiently to retard azo-initiated lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid in methanol. The most efficient compounds, 31 and 39, contained one and two hydroxyl groups, respectively, in the para positions and methyl groups in all four positions ortho to tellurium. As determined by the values of n.kinh, these materials were as(More)
The thioredoxin system (NADPH, thioredoxin reductase/ thioredoxin) is important for cancer cell growth and inhibition of apoptosis and presents an attractive target for anticancer drug development. Thioredoxin reductase is a selenocysteine-containing flavoenzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxidized thioredoxin. This enzyme could therefore be used for(More)
The metallic group XVIa elements selenium and tellurium possess remarkably similar chemical properties. However, unlike selenium, tellurium is not an essential micronutrient and, indeed, induces both acute and chronic toxicity in a variety of species. Despite this, very little is known of the molecular mechanisms of toxicity of tellurium, particularly with(More)
Antioxidant activities of 3-[4-(N,N-dimethylamino) benzenetellurenyl]propanesulfonic acid sodium salt (NDBT) were evaluated in solution, red blood cells, synaptosomal membranes, and cultured hippocampal neuronal cells after exposure to peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and hydroxyl radicals. The organotellurium compound NDBT possesses significant activity towards(More)
Thioredoxin reductase is a selenocysteine containing flavoenzyme that catalyzes the NADPH dependent reduction of the redox protein thioredoxin. Thioredoxin is over-expressed by a number of human tumors. Experimental studies have shown that thioredoxin is responsible for the growth and transformed phenotype of some human cancer cells. Thus, thioredoxin(More)
Water-soluble diorganyl tellurides of the alkyl aryl or dialkyl type were prepared by treatment of mono-6-tosyl-beta-cyclodextrin with sodium alkanetellurolates or arenetellurolates or sodium telluride. The novel cyclodextrin-derived organotelluriums were evaluated for their capacity to catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide,(More)
The reaction of ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) with thiols was investigated with particular attention to the formation of an ebselen selenol intermediate. The selenol intermediate could be trapped in a mixture of ebselen and thiols with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and the resulting product displayed unique spectral characteristics. The(More)
Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), a NADPH-dependent disulfide oxidoreductase, is vital in numerous cellular processes including defence against reactive oxygen species, cell proliferation and signal transduction. TrxRs occur in 2 forms, a high Mr enzyme characterized by those of mammals, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and some worms, and a low Mr(More)
INTRODUCTION Antioxidants are known to avert oxidation processes and they are found in trees and other plant materials. Tree bark is a major waste product from paper pulp industries; hence it is worthwhile to develop an extraction technique to extract the antioxidants. OBJECTIVE To develop a fast and environmentally sustainable extraction technique for(More)