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Recent data in invertebrates demonstrated that huntingtin (htt) is essential for fast axonal trafficking. Here, we provide direct and functional evidence that htt is involved in fast axonal trafficking in mammals. Moreover, expression of full-length mutant htt (mhtt) impairs vesicular and mitochondrial trafficking in mammalian neurons in vitro and in whole(More)
Endonuclease III from Escherichia coli is the prototype of a ubiquitous DNA repair enzyme essential for the removal of oxidized pyrimidine base damage. The yeast genome project has revealed the presence of two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NTG1 and NTG2, encoding proteins with similarity to endonuclease III. Both contain the highly conserved(More)
Synaptic transmission of most vertebrate synapses is thought to be terminated by rapid transport of the neurotransmitter into presynaptic nerve terminals or neuroglia. L-Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in brain and its transport represents the mechanism by which it is removed from the synaptic cleft and kept below toxic levels. Here we use an(More)
The base excision repair pathway has evolved to protect cells from the deleterious effects of endogenous DNA damage induced by hydrolysis, reactive oxygen species and other intracellular metabolites that modify DNA base structure. However, base excision repair is also important to resist lesions produced by ionizing radiation and strong alkylating agents,(More)
Mitochondria are not only the major site for generation of reactive oxygen species, but also one of the main targets of oxidative damage. One of the major products of DNA oxidation, 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), accumulates in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) at levels three times higher than in nuclear DNA. The main pathway for the repair of 8-oxodG is the base(More)
One gene locus on chromosome I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein (YAB5_YEAST; accession no. P31378) with local sequence similarity to the DNA repair glycosylase endonuclease III from Escherichia coli. We have analyzed the function of this gene, now assigned NTG1 (endonuclease three-like glycosylase 1), by cloning, mutant analysis, and gene(More)
BACKGROUND There has been an ongoing debate in the reproductive field about whether mammalian spermatozoa rely on glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation or both for their energy production. Recent studies have proposed that human spermatozoa depend mainly on glucose for motility and fertilization but the mechanism behind an efficient glycolysis in human(More)
The adipose hormone leptin and its receptor are important for regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. Leptin also is involved in the growth of different tissues. In this study, we show the expression of leptin in primary cultures of normal human osteoblasts (hOBs) as evidenced by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and(More)
Differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) involves the activation of aerobic metabolism, which is dependent on mitochondrial function. Here, we show that the differentiation of NSCs involves robust increases in mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, and respiration capacity. The increased respiration activity renders mtDNA vulnerable(More)
Deamination of DNA bases can occur spontaneously, generating highly mutagenic lesions such as uracil and hypoxanthine. In Escherichia coli two enzymes initiate repair at hypoxanthine residues in DNA. The alkylbase DNA glycosylase, AlkA, initiates repair by removal of the damaged base, whereas endonuclease V, Endo V, hydrolyses the second phosphodiester bond(More)