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Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a recently cloned new member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, promotes survival of cultured fetal mesencephalic dopamine neurons and is expressed in the developing striatum. There have, however, been no reports about effects of GDNF in situ. We have used the dopaminergic neurotoxin(More)
Dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area regulate movement and affective behavior and degenerate in Parkinson's disease. The orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 was shown to be expressed in developing dopamine neurons before the appearance of known phenotypic markers for these cells. Mice lacking Nurr1 failed to generate midbrain(More)
Cloning strategies were used to identify a gene termed glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor-beta (GDNFR-beta) related to GDNFR-alpha. In situ hybridization was then used to map cellular expression of the GDNF-related trophic factor neurturin (NTN) and GDNFR-beta mRNA in developing and adult mice, and comparisons with GDNFR-alpha and RET were(More)
Several studies have reported functional improvement after transplantation of neural stem cells into injured spinal cord. We now provide evidence that grafting of adult neural stem cells into a rat thoracic spinal cord weight-drop injury improves motor recovery but also causes aberrant axonal sprouting associated with allodynia-like hypersensitivity of(More)
In this paper, we describe the preparation of a rat template intended for use together with SPM to enable spatial normalisation of individual rat brains. The template was created from T2-weighted images of the brains of five adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. A large number of anatomical landmarks were manually identified in each of these image volumes and(More)
A combination of anatomical, histological and physiological data from wild-type and null-mutated mice have established crucial roles for BDNF and NT3 in gustatory and somatosensory innervation of the tongue, and indeed for proper development of the papillary surface of the tongue. BDNF is expressed in taste buds, NT3 in many surrounding epithelial(More)
Nurr1 and NGFI-B are closely related orphan members of the steroid-thyroid hormone receptor family involved in immediate early responses to stimuli such as growth factors. In-situ hybridization in the developing and adult mouse and rat demonstrated Nurr1 mRNA in several regions during early central nervous system (CNS) development. Expression persisted(More)
Complete spinal cord gaps in adult rats were bridged with multiple intercostal nerve grafts that redirected specific pathways from white to gray matter. The grafted area was stabilized with fibrin glue containing acidic fibroblast growth factor and by compressive wiring of posterior spinal processes. Hind limb function improved progressively during the(More)
The recently cloned, distant member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), has potent trophic actions on fetal mesencephalic dopamine neurons. GDNF also has protective and restorative activity on adult mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and potently protects motoneurons from(More)
Marrow stromal cells (MSC) can be expanded rapidly in vitro and differentiated into multiple mesodermal cell types. In addition, differentiation into neuron-like cells expressing markers typical for mature neurons has been reported. To analyze whether such cells, exposed to differentiation media, could develop electrophysiological properties characteristic(More)