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Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, has recently been approved for the symptomatic treatment of arthritis. In some clinical studies, doses of 400 and 800 mg/day provided somewhat less efficacy compared with 200 mg/day, which suggests an early ceiling effect. Using the zymosan-induced inflammation model in rats, we show that celecoxib(More)
Cancers have dysfunctional redox regulation resulting in reactive oxygen species production, damaging both DNA and free dNTPs. The MTH1 protein sanitizes oxidized dNTP pools to prevent incorporation of damaged bases during DNA replication. Although MTH1 is non-essential in normal cells, we show that cancer cells require MTH1 activity to avoid incorporation(More)
The regular use of various nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was shown to decrease the incidence of colorectal cancer. This effect is thought to be caused predominantly by inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and, subsequently, prostaglandin synthesis. However, recent studies have suggested that COX-independent pathways may contribute(More)
Nociception evoked prostaglandin (PG) release in the spinal cord considerably contributes to the induction of hyperalgesia and allodynia. To evaluate the relative contribution of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 in this process we assessed the effects of the selective COX-1 inhibitor SC560 and the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib on formalin-evoked(More)
The mechanisms by which eukaryotic cells handle and distribute the essential micronutrient iron within the cytosol and other cellular compartments are only beginning to emerge. The yeast monothiol multidomain glutaredoxins (Grx) 3 and 4 are essential for both transcriptional iron regulation and intracellular iron distribution. Despite the fact that the(More)
The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family consists of four paralogous genes, CRH and urocortins (UCNs) 1, 2, and 3. In a previous study, we analyzed CRH in the teleost model organism zebrafish and its transcript distribution in the embryonic brain. Here, we describe full-length cDNAs encoding urotensin 1 (UTS1), the teleost UCN1 ortholog, and UCN3 of(More)
Glutaredoxin 2 is a vertebrate specific oxidoreductase of the thioredoxin family of proteins modulating the intracellular thiol pool. Thereby, glutaredoxin 2 is important for specific redox signaling and regulates embryonic development of brain and vasculature via reversible oxidative posttranslational thiol modifications. Here, we describe that(More)
BACKGROUND Previously, we showed cancer cells rely on the MTH1 protein to prevent incorporation of otherwise deadly oxidised nucleotides into DNA and we developed MTH1 inhibitors which selectively kill cancer cells. Recently, several new and potent inhibitors of MTH1 were demonstrated to be non-toxic to cancer cells, challenging the utility of MTH1(More)
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