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A genetic perspective of human history in Europe was derived from 22 binary markers of the nonrecombining Y chromosome (NRY). Ten lineages account for >95% of the 1007 European Y chromosomes studied. Geographic distribution and age estimates of alleles are compatible with two Paleolithic and one Neolithic migratory episode that have contributed to the(More)
Clinal patterns of autosomal genetic diversity within Europe have been interpreted in previous studies in terms of a Neolithic demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture; in contrast, studies using mtDNA have traced many founding lineages to the Paleolithic and have not shown strongly clinal variation. We have used 11 human Y-chromosomal biallelic(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable degenerative disorder of motoneurons. We recently reported that reduced expression of Vegfa causes ALS-like motoneuron degeneration in Vegfa(delta/delta) mice. In a meta-analysis of over 900 individuals from Sweden and over 1,000 individuals from Belgium and England, we now report that subjects homozygous(More)
To investigate which aspects of contemporary human Y-chromosome variation in Europe are characteristic of primary colonization, late-glacial expansions from refuge areas, Neolithic dispersals, or more recent events of gene flow, we have analyzed, in detail, haplogroup I (Hg I), the only major clade of the Y phylogeny that is widespread over Europe but(More)
The Saami are regarded as extreme genetic outliers among European populations. In this study, a high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of Saami genetic heritage was undertaken in a comprehensive context, through use of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and paternally inherited Y-chromosomal variation. DNA variants present in the Saami were(More)
A maximum parsimony tree of 21 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences belonging to haplogroup X and the survey of the haplogroup-associated polymorphisms in 13,589 mtDNAs from Eurasia and Africa revealed that haplogroup X is subdivided into two major branches, here defined as "X1" and "X2." The first is restricted to the populations of North and East(More)
Associations were studied between six serum protein polymorphisms (C3, BF, HP, ORM, TF, and GC) and high versus low scoring on episodic memory tasks in an attempt to identify QTL (quantitative trait loci) contributing to the heritability of this quantitative trait. Since a highly significant sex difference (p = .00002) was found with respect to the(More)
Significant associations between the transferrin (TF) variant C2 and a number of disorders suspected to be caused by oxygen free radicals have been reported. Thus an increased frequency of the TFC2 variant has been found in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it has been hypothesized that AD is caused by free radical damage due to defective binding(More)
The occurrence of chromosome aberrations was studied in short-term cultured lymphocytes from nine workers exposed to arsenic at the Rönnskär smeltery in northern Sweden. In the smelter workers, 87 aberrations were found in 819 mitoses. The number of aberrations varied individually from 0 to 25 aberrations per 100 cells. In a control material 13 aberrations(More)
An alanin-9valin (Ala-9Val) polymorphism in the mitochondrial targeting sequence of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) has recently been described. We studied this polymorphism in 72 Swedish patients with sporadic motor neuron diseases (MND) and controls using an oligonucleotide ligation assay. There were significant differences in genotype(More)