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Estrogen is essential for growth and development of the mammary glands and has been associated with the promotion and growth of breast cancer and in line with this, most human breast cancers are initially estrogen-dependent and undergo regression when deprived of their supporting hormone. Estrogen exerts many of its effects via two nuclear estrogen(More)
A working model for haematopoietic cytokine signal transduction has been hypothesised as follows. Binding of cytokines to specific receptor molecules leads to phosphorylation and activation of receptor associated members of the Janus kinase family. This is followed by tyrosine phosphorylation of the associated receptor and members of the STAT (signal(More)
We have known for many years that estrogen is more than the female hormone. It is essential in the male gonads, and in both sexes, estrogen has functions in the skeleton and central nervous system, on behavior, and in the cardiovascular and immune systems. An important aspect of the discovery of estrogen receptor (ER) beta is that the diverse functions of(More)
INTRODUCTION The inhibition of estrogen receptor (ER) α action with the ER antagonist tamoxifen is an established treatment in the majority of breast cancers. De novo or acquired resistance to this therapy is common. Expression of ERβ in breast tumors has been implicated as an indicator of tamoxifen sensitivity. The mechanisms behind this observation remain(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in stem cell biology, differentiation and oncogenesis and are of high interest as potential breast cancer therapeutics. However, their expression and function during normal mammary differentiation and in breast cancer remain to be elucidated. In order to identify which miRNAs are involved in mammary differentiation, we(More)
We have investigated the possible involvement of the MAPK pathway in the growth hormone(GH)-induced activation of one of the members of signal transducers and activators of transcription, STAT5, by using the MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059. PD98059 treatment of Chinese hamster ovarian cells, stably transfected with the GH receptor (CHOA cells),(More)
INTRODUCTION Mammary stem cells are bipotential and suggested to be the origin of breast cancer development, but are elusive and vaguely characterized. Breast tumors can be divided into subgroups, each one requiring specific treatment. To determine a possible association between mammary stem cells and breast cancer, a detailed characterization of the(More)
Steroid hormone receptors and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) factors constitute two distinct families of transcription factors activated by different signaling pathways. In previous reports, cross-talk between STAT5 and several steroid receptors has been demonstrated. We investigated putative cross-talk between ERalpha and ERbeta(More)
Two estrogen receptors (ERA and ERB) are found throughout the mammary gland. Evidence indicates that, while ERA transduces proliferation signals, ERB opposes this effect and is necessary for epithelial differentiation. Using mouse mamma-ry epithelial cells, we have previously shown that activation of ERB opposes ERA-induced proliferation and increases(More)
The direct effect of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) on osteoblasts remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) and its analogue, 2-methylene-19-nor-(20S)-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (2MD), on osteoblasts from three different species, i.e. bone marrow stromal cells from the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat, from the C57BL/6 mouse,(More)