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Estrogen is essential for growth and development of the mammary glands and has been associated with the promotion and growth of breast cancer and in line with this, most human breast cancers are initially estrogen-dependent and undergo regression when deprived of their supporting hormone. Estrogen exerts many of its effects via two nuclear estrogen(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and myoblasts. It has been suggested that a reciprocal relationship exists between the differentiation of MSC into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2) is a key element for the differentiation into adipocytes.(More)
The pS2 promoter is complex with binding sites for a number of protein factors that may participate in modulating its activity. The pS2 gene was transcriptionally activated by estrogens in HepG2 cells transformed (HepER3) to express the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). The phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated pS2 expression in(More)
The pS2 gene is estrogen responsive in hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) in the presence of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). The estrogenic activity is mediated through an estrogen response element (ERE) in the 5'-flanking region of the pS2 gene; however, an activator protein 1 (AP1) response element located close to the ERE in the pS2 promoter has also(More)
We have known for many years that estrogen is more than the female hormone. It is essential in the male gonads, and in both sexes, estrogen has functions in the skeleton and central nervous system, on behavior, and in the cardiovascular and immune systems. An important aspect of the discovery of estrogen receptor (ER) beta is that the diverse functions of(More)
The mitogenic effect of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on the breast is mediated by estrogen receptor alfa (ERalpha), hence ERalpha antagonists are effective in the treatment of breast cancer. The possible use of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) as a target in treatment of breast cancer is under investigation. The mouse mammary cell line HC11 expresses both ERs and(More)
Studies of the effects of interleukin-6 on osteoblasts have yielded conflicting results. In several earlier in vitro studies it has been stated that IL-6 has no effects on osteoblasts unless soluble IL-6 receptor is added. These results are contradictory to the fact that IL-6 receptors are expressed in osteoblasts in vivo. In this study, MC3T3 preosteoblast(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in stem cell biology, differentiation and oncogenesis and are of high interest as potential breast cancer therapeutics. However, their expression and function during normal mammary differentiation and in breast cancer remain to be elucidated. In order to identify which miRNAs are involved in mammary differentiation, we(More)
Mammary gland development involves complex cycles of proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis, regulated by hormones including estrogens, prolactin (PRL), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The mouse mammary epithelial cell line HC11 has been shown to be valuable for investigations of differentiation of mammary gland. In this study, we show that(More)
Mammary stem cells are bipotential and suggested to be the origin of breast cancer development, but are elusive and vaguely characterized. Breast tumors can be divided into subgroups, each one requiring specific treatment. To determine a possible association between mammary stem cells and breast cancer, a detailed characterization of the transcriptome in(More)