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One of the major limitations in the use of genetically modified mice for studying cognitive functions is the lack of regional and temporal control of gene function. To overcome these limitations, a forebrain-specific promoter was combined with the tetracycline transactivator system to achieve both regional and temporal control of transgene expression.(More)
A Monte Carlo model of steady-state light transport in multi-layered tissues (MCML) has been coded in ANSI Standard C; therefore, the program can be used on various computers. Dynamic data allocation is used for MCML, hence the number of tissue layers and grid elements of the grid system can be varied by users at run time. The coordinates of the simulated(More)
Theories of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia have implicated the hippocampus, but controversy remains regarding hippocampal abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. In vivo studies of hippocampal anatomy using high resolution magnetic resonance scanning and manual methods for volumetric measurement have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps because(More)
Leptin is the primary signal through which the hypothalamus senses nutritional state and modulates food intake and energy balance. Leptin reduces food intake by upregulating anorexigenic (appetite-reducing) neuropeptides, such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and downregulating orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) factors, primarily neuropeptide Y.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We tested the hypothesis that intravenous infusion of bone marrow derived-marrow stromal cells (MSCs) enter the brain and reduce neurological functional deficits after stroke in rats. METHODS Rats (n=32) were subjected to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Test groups consisted of MCAO alone (group 1, n=6);(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBC) are rich in stem and progenitor cells. In this study we tested whether intravenously infused HUCBC enter brain, survive, differentiate, and improve neurological functional recovery after stroke in rats. In addition, we tested whether ischemic brain tissue extract selectively induces chemotaxis(More)
Structural deformity of the hippocampus is characteristic of individuals with very mild and mild forms of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). The purpose of this study was to determine whether a similar deformity of the hippocampus can predict the onset of dementia in nondemented elders. Using high dimensional diffeomorphic transformations of a(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the effect of i.v.-injected human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSC) on neurologic functional deficits after stroke in rats. METHODS Rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and IV injected with 3 x 10(6) hMSC 1 day after stroke. Functional outcome was measured before and 1, 7, and 14 days after stroke. Mixed(More)
Graphene devices on standard SiO(2) substrates are highly disordered, exhibiting characteristics that are far inferior to the expected intrinsic properties of graphene. Although suspending the graphene above the substrate leads to a substantial improvement in device quality, this geometry imposes severe limitations on device architecture and functionality.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the feasibility of using high-dimensional brain mapping (HDBM) to assess the structure of the hippocampus in older human subjects, and to compare measurements of hippocampal volume and shape in subjects with early dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and in healthy elderly and younger control subjects. BACKGROUND HDBM represents the(More)