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beta-Defensins are small antimicrobial peptides of the innate immune system produced in response to microbial infection of mucosal tissue and skin. We demonstrate that murine beta-defensin 2 (mDF2beta) acts directly on immature dendritic cells as an endogenous ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), inducing up-regulation of costimulatory molecules and(More)
PURPOSE Vaccination with hybridoma-derived autologous tumor immunoglobulin (Ig) idiotype (Id) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and administered with granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces follicular lymphoma (FL) -specific immune responses. To determine the clinical benefit of this vaccine, we conducted a double-blind(More)
BACKGROUND Endogenous or iatrogenic antitumour immune responses can improve the course of follicular lymphoma, but might be diminished by immune checkpoints in the tumour microenvironment. These checkpoints might include effects of programmed cell death 1 (PD1), a co-inhibitory receptor that impairs T-cell function and is highly expressed on intratumoral T(More)
Mammalian defensins are small, cationic, antimicrobial peptides encoded by the host that are considered to be important antibiotic-like effectors of innate immunity. By using chemokine receptors on dendritic cells and T cells, defensins might also contribute to the regulation of host adaptive immunity against microbial invasion. Defensins have considerable(More)
Lymphomas express a tumor-specific antigen which can be targeted by cancer vaccination. We evaluated the ability of a new idiotype protein vaccine formulation to eradicate residual t(14;18)+ lymphoma cells in 20 patients in a homogeneous, chemotherapy-induced first clinical complete remission. All 11 patients with detectable translocations in their primary(More)
Nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation in patients with follicular lymphoma has been designed to exploit the graft-versus-lymphoma immunity. The long-term effectiveness and toxicity of this strategy, however, is unknown. In this prospective study, we analyzed our 8-year experience. Patients received a conditioning regimen of fludarabine (30 mg/m(2)(More)
We recently showed that monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against beta2-microglobulin (beta2M) have a remarkably strong apoptotic effect on myeloma cells. The mAbs induced apoptosis by recruiting major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I to lipid rafts, activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and inhibited phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and(More)
There are major differences between therapeutic tumor vaccines and chemotherapeutic agents that have important implications for the design of early clinical trials. Many vaccines are inherently safe and do not require phase I dose finding trials. Patients with advanced cancers and compromised immune systems are not good candidates for assessing either the(More)
A number of antimicrobial peptides such as defensins have multiple functions in host defence. Defensins are produced not only by phagocytic cells and lymphocytes, but also by the epithelial cell lining of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, the tracheobronchial tree, and keratinocytes. Some are produced constitutively, whereas others are induced(More)
Defensins released by neutrophils are able to kill a broad spectrum of microbes. They also induce leukocyte migration in vitro and elicit inflammatory leukocyte responses at s.c. injection sites in mice. In vitro experiments showed that human defensins enhanced concanavalin A-stimulated murine spleen cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production. This led us(More)