Larry R. Smith

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BACKGROUND Cytomegalovirus reactivation occurs within 6 months in 60-70% of cytomegalovirus-seropositive patients after allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT), mainly due to immunosuppression associated with the procedure. Pre-emptive antiviral therapy reduces incidence of cytomegalovirus disease but can be toxic. To reduce the potential(More)
Loss of immunogenic epitopes by tumors has urged the development of vaccines against multiple epitopes. Recombinant DNA technologies have opened the possibility to develop multiepitope vaccines in a relatively rapid and efficient way. We have constructed four naked DNA-based multiepitope vaccines, containing CTL, Th cell, and B cell epitopes of the human(More)
BACKGROUND A pandemic H5N1 influenza outbreak would be facilitated by an absence of immunity to the avian-derived virus in the human population. Although this condition is likely in regard to hemagglutinin-mediated immunity, the neuraminidase (NA) of H5N1 viruses (avN1) and of endemic human H1N1 viruses (huN1) are classified in the same serotype. We(More)
BACKGROUND Development of vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 subtypes posing a pandemic threat remains a priority. Limitations in manufacturing capacity and production time of conventional inactivated vaccines highlight the need for additional approaches. METHODS We conducted two double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 studies(More)
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD Many vaccines require the use of an adjuvant to achieve immunity. So far, few adjuvants have advanced successfully through clinical trials to become part of licensed vaccines. Vaxfectin® (Vical, CA, USA) represents a next-generation adjuvant with promise as a platform technology, showing utility with both plasmid DNA (pDNA) and(More)
With the increasing generation of new cancer vaccine strategies, there is also an increasing demand for preclinical models that can carefully predict the efficacy of these vaccines in humans. However, the only tumor models available to study vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 have been developed in C57BL/6 mice. To test the HLA-restricted(More)
Next generation influenza vaccines containing conserved antigens may enhance immunity against seasonal or pandemic influenza virus strains. Using a plasmid DNA (pDNA)-based vaccine approach, we systematically tested combinations of NP, M1, and M2 antigens derived from consensus sequences for protection against lethal influenza challenge and compared(More)
The etiological role of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in cervical and other cancers suggests that therapeutic vaccines directed against requisite viral antigens may eradicate tumors or their precursors. A Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) alphavirus vector delivering the HPV16 E7 RNA was evaluated for antitumor efficacy using a murine E7+ tumor model.(More)
BACKGROUND VCL-CB01, a candidate cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA vaccine that contains plasmids encoding CMV phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) and glycoprotein B (gB) to induce cellular and humoral immune responses and that is formulated with poloxamer CRL1005 and benzalkonium chloride to enhance immune responses, was evaluated in a phase 1 clinical trial. METHODS(More)
2013 marks a milestone year for plasmid DNA vaccine development as a first-in-class cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA vaccine enters pivotal phase 3 testing. This vaccine consists of two plasmids expressing CMV antigens glycoprotein B (gB) and phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) formulated with a CRL1005 poloxamer and benzalkonium chloride (BAK) delivery system designed to(More)