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We have determined the transverse chromatic aberration of the human eye by measuring the apparent offset of a two-color vernier viewed foveally through a displaced, pinhole aperture. For the same subjects, we also determined the longitudinal chromatic aberration for foveal viewing by the method of best focus. In both cases, the results were closely(More)
1. Responses of cat retinal ganglion cells to a drifting sinusoidal grating stimulus were measured as a function of the grating orientation and spatial frequency.2. The response at fixed frequency and contrast varied with orientation in the manner of a cosine function. A new measure was introduced to quantify this orientation bias in the response domain on(More)
Psychometric performance was measured for contrast detection and spatial resolution tasks in foveal and peripheral vision. Objective evidence was obtained for a quantitative difference between resolution acuity and detection acuity in the peripheral field. These two types of spatial acuity differed by up to an order of magnitude (3 vs 30 c/deg at 30 deg(More)
The maximum spatial frequency for the detection and resolution of sinusoidal gratings was determined as a function of stimulus location across the visual field. Stimuli were produced directly on the retina as interference fringes, thus avoiding possible loss of image quality, which may occur when the optical system of the eye is used to form the retinal(More)
Pattern resolution is generally considered a prerequisite for spatial vision because details too fine to be resolved cannot be distinguished from a uniform field. However, our experiments using peripheral vision demonstrate that reliable pattern detection is possible for images far beyond the resolution limit. The visual percept which arises in this case is(More)
1. The graded response of bipolar and ganglion cells to test flashes at the receptive field centre, spans only a limited portion of the test intensity domain: more than 90% of the graded response range can be elicited by test flashes differing by less than 100 to 1. 2. In the presence of steady illumination of the receptive field surround, the absolute(More)
We develop and test two functional hypotheses based on the sampling theory of visual resolution that might account for letter acuity in peripheral vision. First, a letter smaller than the acuity limit provides insufficient veridical energy for performing the task, and, second, the available veridical energy is masked by increased amounts of visible but(More)
In response to a perceived need in the vision community, an OSA taskforce was formed at the 1999 topical meeting on vision science and its applications (VSIA-99) and charged with developing consensus recommendations on definitions, conventions, and standards for reporting of optical aberrations of human eyes. Progress reports were presented at the 1999 OSA(More)
We determined the accuracy and precision of 33 objective methods for predicting the results of conventional, sphero-cylindrical refraction from wavefront aberrations in a large population of 200 eyes. Accuracy for predicting defocus (as specified by the population mean error of prediction) varied from -0.50 D to +0.25 D across methods. Precision of these(More)
<p>Using a simple model eye with a wavelength-dependent diffraction, a wavelength-dependent refractive error (chromatic difference in refractive error), and a wavelength-dependent displacement of the foveal images (transverse chromatic aberration), we have evaluated the luminance modulations in retinal images of isoluminant color gratings. In cases where(More)