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The fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem (FSMVRP) is a class of combinatorial optimization problem with wide-ranging applications in practice. The purpose of this problem is to manage the routes as well as the type of vehicles. In this paper, we apply a bio-inspired algorithm based on the concept of membrane computing (named BIBMA) to solve FSMVRP. In(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate variations in bladder and rectal volume and the position of the vaginal vault during a 5-week course of pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after hysterectomy. METHODS AND MATERIALS Twenty-four patients were instructed how to fill their bladders before simulation and treatment. These patients underwent computed(More)
A technique using basic geometric principles is described that allows accurate determination of the location of the nonpalpable lesion in relation to the localizing wire tip and the skin. This method allows the surgeon to make the skin incision directly over the lesion, thus avoiding the creation of tissue flaps and minimizing the amount of tissue removed.(More)
Pregnant rats were fed to appetite on diets containing 6, 9, 12 or 18% protein and the fetuses were delivered at 20 days. Compared with the 18% protein diet (7.4 MJ), there was a significant increase in food and energy intake in the rats on the 9% (8.7 MJ) and 12% (8.4 MJ) diets, but not on the 6% (7.4 MJ) diet. The efficiency with which the dietary energy(More)
PURPOSE To examine the outcome of patients who developed an isolated locoregional recurrence (LRR) involving the supraclavicular fossa (SCV) after initial treatment with modified radical mastectomy and chemotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS Records from 140 breast cancer patients treated on five prospective trials with mastectomy and doxorubicin-based(More)
he effectiveness of weapons guided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) often depends on the accuracy of the target coordinates provided as aimpoints. However, current geolocation methods using GPS, pointing angles, and terrain elevation are only accurate to 100 m at best, which is inadequate for precision strike. This article discusses an APL-developed(More)
ATRACK has been a significant contributor to the development and operational success of the Trident Weapon System, and it continues to provide a unique monitoring function that is critical to the maintenance of the U.S. sea-based strategic deterrent. This article reviews the background and evolution of this unique Global Positioning System user application(More)
Since its introduction in 1960, the Kalman filter has become an integral component in thousands of military and civilian navigation systems. This deceptively simple, recursive digital algorithm has been an early-on favorite for conveniently integrating (or fusing) navigation sensor data to achieve optimal overall system performance. To provide current(More)