Larry L. St. Clair

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Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and a photosynthetic alga and/or cyanobacteria. Lichenized fungi have been found to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites, most of which are unique to the lichenized condition. These secondary metabolites have shown an impressive range of biological activities including antibiotics, antifungal,(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPSp) pretreatment inhibits TNF secretion in endotoxin-tolerant macrophages via alterations in signal transduction pathways of LPS activation (LPSa). Protein kinase C inhibitors prevent TNF release in response to LPSa and direct protein kinase C activation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) restores TNF secretion after LPSp. In the(More)
BACKGROUND Dysregulation of macrophage tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-(IL-1) release results from repetitive lipopolysacharride (LPS) stimulation. In this study we investigated the mechanisms of LPS pretreatment (LPSp) signal transduction producing altered LPS-activated (LPSa) cytokine release. METHODS Murine macrophages were treated with(More)
OBJECTIVE Dysregulated macrophage cytokine production may predispose to organ failure during sepsis. Macrophages pretreated in vitro with low-dose endotoxin (LPSp) become "tolerant" to subsequent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation (LPSa), characterized by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and augmentation of interleukin-1 (IL-1). To understand(More)
PURPOSE Endotoxin (LPS) activation of macrophages results in phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK), and p38 kinase. LPS pretreatment inhibits subsequent LPS-stimulated MAPK activation and TNF release and both were reversed if macrophages were treated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) before(More)
BACKGROUND Macrophages pretreated in vitro with endotoxin (LPSp) secrete less tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in response to a second LPS activating (LPSa) stimulus. Protein kinase C (PKC) is required for TNF secretion in a macrophage stimulated with LPSa. In these experiments we examined the role of PKC in TNF signal transduction in naive and tolerant(More)
Altered endotoxin (LPS) signal transduction in macrophages (Mphi) may mediate development of organ dysfunction in sepsis. C3H/HeJ Mphi have a specific genetic defect that renders them "tolerant" to in vitro LPS activation. LPS tolerance can be induced in normal C3H/HeN Mphi following in vitro LPS pretreatment. In these experiments, in vitro LPS-stimulated(More)
In vitro pretreatment of human monocytes (MO) with low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPSp) inhibits TNF release in response to subsequent LPSa activation. Septic patients are often indistinguishable from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). We hypothesized that in vivo exposure to "septic" stimuli impairs subsequent LPSa-stimulated MO(More)
Pretreatment of macrophages with low-dose endotoxin (LPSp) profoundly alters cytokine release in response to subsequent LPSa activation. These qualitative and quantitative alterations in cytokine release have been termed macrophage reprogramming. Macrophage activation by LPS is thought to occur via a mechanism involving an early protein tyrosine kinase(More)
Macrophages rendered "tolerant" by pretreatment with low-dose endotoxin (LPSp) release less TNF and more IL-1 in response to a second activating endotoxin exposure (LPSa). We hypothesized that LPSp pretreatment alters signal transduction pathways for TNF and IL-1 independently. The effect of pretreatment with LPSp alone was compared to pretreatment with(More)